Thursday, February 28, 2019

A Practitioner’s Guide to Ethical Decision Making

Holly Forester-Miller, Ph. D. Thomas Davis, Ph. D. Copyright 1996, American Counseling Association. A free publication of the American Counseling Association promoting honour equal prop atomic number 53nt pr affectice in service to the public. Printed and bound copies whitethorn be purchased in quantity for a nominal fee from the Online Resource Catalog or by c anying the ACA Distribution Center at 800. 422. 2648.ACA grants reproduction rights to libraries, researchers and t apieceers who inclination to copy all or part of the contents of this document for erudite purposes provided that no fee for the use or possession of such copies is supercharged to the ultimate consumer of the copies. Proper citation to ACA must be given. Introduction Counselors atomic number 18 often faced with situations which require sound estimable determination making ability. Determining the appropriate business line to take when faced with a catchy ethical dilemma can be a altercate.To assis t ACA members in meeting this challenge, the ACA Ethics Committee has developed A Practitioners Guide to honest Decision Making. The intent of this document is to offer professional counselors a mouldingling for sound ethical decision making. The following will address two guiding principles that are globally valuable in ethical decision making, and a model that professionals can utilize as they address ethical questions in their sue. Moral Principles Kitchener (1984) has identified five moral principles that are viewed as the cornerstone of our ethical rule of thumbs.Ethical guidelines can non address all situations that a counselor is forced to confront. Re think these ethical principles which are at the foundation of the guidelines often helps to clarify the issues involved in a given situation. The five principles, autonomy, justice, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and faithfulness are each absolute truths in and of themselves. By exploring the dilemma in regards to these pr inciples one may come to a better understanding of the counterpoint issues. 1. Autonomy is the principle that addresses the concept of independence.The essence of this principle is allowing an individual the emancipation of choice and accomplish. It addresses the responsibility of the counselor to encourage clients, when appropriate, to make their own decisions and to act on their own values. There are two important leaseatenesss in encouraging clients to be autonomous. First, helping the client to understand how their decisions and their values may or may not be received within the mount of the society in which they live, and how they may impinge on the rights of others.The second consideration is related to the clients ability to make sound and rational decisions. Persons not surefooted of making competent choices, such as children, and some individuals with mental handicaps, should not be allowed to act on decisions that could harm themselves or others. 2. Nonmaleficence i s the concept of not ca utilise harm to others. Often explained as above all do no harm, this principle is considered by some to be the nearly critical of all the principles, even though theoretically they are all of equal weight (Kitchener, 1984 Rosenbaum, 1982 Stadler, 1986).This principle reflects both the idea of not inflicting knowing harm, and not engaging in achieves that risk harming others (Forester-Miller & Rubenstein, 1992). 3. Beneficence reflects the counselors responsibility to add together to the welfare of the client. Simply stated it spuriouss to do good, to be proactive and likewise to prevent harm when possible (Forester-Miller & Rubenstein, 1992). 4. Justice does not mean treating all individuals the same.Kitchener (1984) points out that the formal meaning of justice is treating equals equally and unequals raggedly but in proportion to their relevant differences (p. 49). If an individual is to be interact differently, the counselor needs to be able to off er a principle that explains the necessity and appropriateness of treating this individual differently. 5. Fidelity involves the notions of loyalty, faithfulness, and honoring commitments. Clients must be able to trust the counselor and have faith in the healing(p) relationship if growth is to occur.Therefore, the counselor must take care not to threaten the therapeutic relationship nor to leave obligations unfulfilled. When exploring an ethical dilemma, you need to realise the situation and natter how each of the above principles may relate to that item case. At times this alone will clarify the issues enough that the operator for resolving the dilemma will become obvious to you. In more(prenominal) than complicated cases it is helpful to be able to work through the steps of an ethical decision making model, and to assess which of these moral principles may be in conflict.Ethical Decision Making Model We have incorporated the work of Van Hoose and paradise (1979), Kitche ner (1984), Stadler (1986), Haas and Malouf (1989), Forester-Miller and Rubenstein (1992), and Sileo and Kopala (1993) into a practical, sequential, seven step, ethical decision making model. A description and discussion of the steps follows. 1. Identify the Problem. Gather as much tuition as you can that will illuminate the situation. In doing so, it is important to be as specific and objective as possible. piece of music ideas on paper may help you gain clarity.Outline the facts, separating out innuendos, assumptions, hypotheses, or suspicions. There are several questions you can ask yourself Is it an ethical, efficacious, professional, or clinical problem? Is it a combination of more than one of these? If a legal question exists, seek legal advice. Other questions that it may be usable to ask yourself are Is the issue related to me and what I am or am not doing? Is it related to a client and/or the clients profound others and what they are or are not doing? Is it related to the institution or agency and their policies and procedures?If the problem can be resolved by implementing a policy of an institution or agency, you can look to the agencys guidelines. It is good to toy with that dilemmas you face are often complex, so a useful guideline is to examine the problem from several perspectives and avoid searching for a simplistic solution. 2. Apply the ACA ordinance of Ethics. After you have clarified the problem, refer to the Code of Ethics (ACA, 2005) to see if the issue is addressed there. If there is an applicable sample or several standards and they are specific and clear, following the stratum of action indicated should lead to a resolution of the problem.To be able to apply the ethical standards, it is essential that you have read them carefully and that you understand their implications. If the problem is more complex and a resolution does not seem apparent, then you likely have a true ethical dilemma and need to proceed with further steps in the ethical decision making process. 3. witness the nature and dimensions of the dilemma. There are several avenues to follow in dedicate to ensure that you have examined the problem in all its various dimensions. cypher the moral principles of autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence, justice, and fidelity. Decide which principles apply to the specific situation, and determine which principle takes antecedence for you in this case. In theory, each principle is of equal value, which means that it is your challenge to determine the priorities when two or more of them are in conflict. o Review the relevant professional literature to ensure that you are using the most current professional thinking in reaching a decision. o Consult with experienced professional abetter _or_ abettors and/or supervisors.As they review with you the information you have gathered, they may see other issues that are relevant or provide a perspective you have not considered. They may also be able to ident ify aspects of the dilemma that you are not viewing objectively. o Consult your state or national professional associations to see if they can provide help with the dilemma. 4. Generate potential run-ins of action. Brainstorm as many possible courses of action as possible. Be creative and consider all pickaxes. If possible, enlist the assistance of at least one colleague to help you generate options. . go through the potential consequences of all options and determine a course of action. Considering the information you have gathered and the priorities you have set, evaluate each option and assess the potential consequences for all the parties involved. Ponder the implications of each course of action for the client, for others who will be final resulted, and for yourself as a counselor.Eliminate the options that clearly do not give the desired results or cause even more problematic consequences. Review the remaining options to determine which option or ombination of options tro unce fits the situation and addresses the priorities you have identified. 6. Evaluate the selected course of action. Review the selected course of action to see if it presents any fresh ethical considerations. Stadler (1986) suggests applying three simple auditions to the selected course of action to ensure that it is appropriate. In applying the test of justice, assess your own intelligence of fairness by determining whether you would treat others the same in this situation. For the test of publicity, ask yourself whether you would want your behavior reported in the press.The test of catholicity asks you to assess whether you could recommend the same course of action to another counselor in the same situation. If the course of action you have selected seems to present new ethical issues, then youll need to go back to the beginning and value each step of the process. Perhaps you have chosen the wrong option or you might have identified the problem incorrectly. If you can respond in the affirmative to each of the questions suggested by Stadler (thus passing the tests of justice, publicity, and universality) and you are contented that ou have selected an appropriate course of action, then you are ready to incline on to implementation. 7. Implement the course of action. Taking the appropriate action in an ethical dilemma is often difficult. The final step involves strengthening your self-importance to allow you to carry out your plan. After implementing your course of action, it is good work out to follow up on the situation to assess whether your actions had the anticipated effect and consequences. The Ethical Decision Making Model at a glitter 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Identify the problem. Apply the ACA Code of Ethics.Determine the nature and dimensions of the dilemma. Generate potential courses of action. Consider the potential consequences of all options, choose a course of action. Evaluate the selected course of action. Implement the course of action. I t is important to realize that different professionals may implement different courses of action in the same situation. There is rarely one right answer to a complex ethical dilemma. However, if you follow a systematic model, you can be assured that you will be able to give a professional explanation for the course of action you chose.Van Hoose and Paradise (1979) suggest that a counselor is probably acting in an ethically responsible way concerning a client if (1) he or she has retained individualised and professional honesty, coupled with (2) the best interests of the client, (3) without malice or personal gain, and (4) can justify his or her actions as the best judgment of what should be done based upon the current state of the profession (p. 58). Following this model will help to ensure that all four of these conditions have been met.

Blood Pressure & Pulse during exercise Essay

IntroductionThe cable compel of a person is the force exerted by the blood on the walls of the arteries per social unit area. The blood storm unit is mmHg. The blood compact of an individual is evince in two ways, the systolic (due to the contraction of the ventricle) and diastolic, (due to the relaxation of the ventricle). The normal blood pressure of an individual is 120/80 (systolic / diastolic). Various factors can veer a persons blood pressure this includes exercise, smoking, stress, diseases and age.Materials and MethodsStepping stool, timer, blood pressure measurement kit (Sphygmomanometer and a stethoscope) and students in-groups of four. In each group wholeness student acted as a uncomplaining, while the other acted as a physician or nurse. Another acted as the timekeeper. The fourth student acted as the info recorder.The base-line pulse rate and blood pressure of the enduring (student) were obtained. The patient was asked to perform stepping up and down the stoo l 30 X inside 5 minutes. After the stepping stool exercise, the patients blood pressure and pulse rate were immediately obtained again. After resting for 2 minutes, the measurements were repeated and besides after 5 minutes.In order to obtain more data each student in the group acted as a patient and the measurements were repeated.

Wednesday, February 27, 2019

Compare and contrast between public and private education Essay

Since 1983 common statement has been an issue in America. The outline has been constantly changing every year with reforms. This constant change has been drive by the American populates perception that precept has declined and something should be done about it. First there was an increased emphasis on basic skills, making naturalise years longer and more kickoff requirements.Second, many began focusing on increasing teachers professionalism. Third, they began restructuring many things such as how the schoolings were organized and how the school day was structured etc. Now at present the most of the American people believe that not enough notes is given to common schooling. They associate academic improvement with the money the school is funded. But I believe otherwise. Spending more on grooming will not improve academic success but various teaching methods will. Public education bread and butter is at an all sequence high in America. on that point is no problem with the funding for schools. There is more of a problem on how the money is distributed.To truly run across the problems of education in America,The get together States prides itself on its usual education placement making it a core value of many families. The level of education a person has will influence their career achievements. Americans expect their public system of education to provide a solid curriculum. Most of the people in the United States place their trust in the public school system in which they support through taxes. This trust although is contradicted by the public system of educations current shape.Much of the schools in the United States are either deteriorating, or failing all together. The drawbacks of public education create an unhealthy environment for student learning. Many people call back public school can dip their hands into the public treasury for funding if they are ever in need of money except many schools do not qualify to get these funds. The dispara te funding for public schools and between states and within metropolitan areas has turned some public schools into meccas for affluent students and others into decaying infrastructures with overcrowded classrooms and soaring drop-out rates (

Response to “Letter From a Birmingham Jail”

Martin Luther male monarch jr. wrote Letter from Birmingham tuck in in response to his fellow white clergymen who criticized his actions that come him in jail. He used Biblical examples to show that his nonviolent actions were necessary for African Americans to draw forward in this country. This allowter was mainly directed to those religious leaders who have the power to do something about segregation but dont. The pattern is to hopefully get the backup from powerful religious leaders and residual segregation.He communicates this message very effectively to these men from his references from Saint Paul and King Solomon which is preached within the churches of these religious leaders. He also justifies his nonviolent action by comparing it to just and unjust laws with 1 example of Hitler ( We can neer forget that everything Hitler did in Ger many an(prenominal) was legal and everything the Hungarian independence fighters did in Hungary was extralegal. It was illegal to aid and comfort a Jew in Hitlers Germany. )King claims there is no let on timing for something that has been at conflict for 340 years and that there was no maltreatdoing during this personate-in. He says in confidence, We will reach the goal of freedom in Birmingham and all over the nation, because the goal of America is freedom. Abused and scorned though we may be, our destiny is tied up with the destiny of America. Before the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth, we were here. Before the pen of Jefferson scratched across the pages of history the majestic phrase of the Declaration of Independence, we were here If the inexpressible cruelties of slavery could not stop us, the immunity we in a flash face will surely fail. We will win our freedom because the sacred heritage of our nation and the eternal will of God atomic number 18 embodied in our echoing demands Martin Luther King junior is asking for the succor of the clergymen so they can move forward with Civil Rights. Mr. K ing scolded the clergymen saying,The wee Christians rejoiced when they were deemed worthy to suffer for what they believed.In those days the Church was not merely a thermometer that recorded the ideas and principles of popular opinion it was a thermostat that transformed the mores of society. He was urging them to stand up for what they knew and believed was right just as the former(a) Christian church had done in the face of execution. Martin Luther King Jr. used their belief to persuade them to see the right path. Martin Luther King Jr. s major audience is the clergymen he is writing to. These men take the power to swop peoples minds and yet do not stock-still try.King gives such(prenominal) overwhelming emotion when he compares the situation in Birmingham with Biblical situations such as this (Of course, there is nothing new about this kind of well-behaved disobedience. It was seen sublimely in the refusal of Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego to obey the laws of Nebuchadnezz ar because a higher moral law was involved. It was practiced superbly by the early Christians, who were willing to face peckish lions and the excruciating pain of chopping blocks before submitting to certain unjust laws of the Roman Empire.) exploitation this plagiarize he tried to explain once again that sometimes to do what is right you have to take chances that may seem revile and may be labeled as wrong. He is very maestro and polite at the beginning which helps the audience to really listen to what he has to say. When he really gets his point through is when he gradually gets firmer and firmer throughout the text yet at the same time still be polite. King portrays himself as one of the clergymen, but one that has to overcome the many obstacles of the average African American.He acts as a friend and yet in the middle of the letter he portrays the religious leaders as an antagonist that he hopes will reconsider their position on Civil Rights. primary(prenominal) Quotes So I have tried to make it clear that it is wrong to use immoral means to attain moral ends. But now I must affirm that it is just as wrong, or even more so, to use moral means to preserve immoral ends. This quote means that it is wrong to use forceful methods and violence to get a good ending but it is equally as bad to sit by and watch, doing nothing, while dissolute actions are being made.Injustice anyplace is a threat to justice everywhere. We are caught in an inescapable intercommunicate of mutuality, tied in a single garment of destiny. Whatever affects one directly, affects all indirectly. Martin Luther Kings quote means that even if you arent directly affected by the current situation it will someways come back to include you so the best way to hairgrip injustice is to get rid of it right away and not let it affect anyone. it is immoral to urge an individual to withdraw his efforts to gain his rudimentary constitutional rights because the quest precipitates violence. Soci ety must protect the robbed and punish the robber. This quote discourages the clergymens decision to sit back and not do anything about the evolution issue of slavery in Birmingham. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. was urging them to change the hearts of the people and communities they preached to. Mr. King believed that society must protect the African Americans affected by racism and punish the racist.

Tuesday, February 26, 2019

Food Industry Essay

forage Industry is one of the complexes which involve a vast global collection of m any businesses that come together to overhauler solid regimen energy consumed throughout the world population. Those farmers who merely depend on diet that they plant are not considered to be part of aliment manufacture in these modern days. The food for thought manufacturing includes the fol pocket-sizeding Regulations- These regulations site from local to international rules and regulations which govern food end result and sales, food prize and natural rubber, and usual industry lobbying activities (David, Grotton, 1979, pg417). Education- This bottom be academic which results to professional in food toil, vocational which involves prefatorial training or consultancy which deals on source regarding antithetical food products. Research and development- This involves food engineering in do to invest various ways of food mathematical product which does not make up in the merch andise. Financial services which include insurance and credit services. Manufacturing- intellectual nourishment industry tortuous in manufacturing of Agro-chemicals, seeds, farm machinery and supplies of agricultural construction. Agriculture- This is a basic area in food industry since it deals with raising of crops, livestock and in like manner sea foods which are the main raw material used in food industries. Food processing- This involves preparing fresh products for sale in markets and withal it involves assembly of already prepared food products. Marketing- This deals with promotion of new products in market. It also gets views from common opinion by advertising packaging and public relation. sell and distribution- This is done in warehouses, transportation and logistics. Retails- Food products are basically sell in supermarkets, stones, direct con. Summer restaurants and other food services centers. Therefore, food industry basically covers all aspects of food pro duction and sales. All transactions among productions of food up to the meter food is taken to the market are taken care of. The industry size of food production is quite an wide since it covers worldwide population and its approximately US $3. 2 trillion in 2004. For example, in United State they spend about US $ 1 trillion annually for food or almost ten percent of their gross domestic product (Harratio, 2007, pg 370).This industry due to its diversity and great need to expand it has around 16. 5 million people who are employed in the industry. Food industry regulations are very vital in every stage from production to inspiration. These stages include production, processing, distribution, retail, packaging and labeling of all food products. All these are governed by a mass of laws, regulations, code of practice and guidance. There are general food laws which must be followed by everyone whether one is urinateing in a food business or he or she is involved in consumption of the food productions.This deals mainly with registration of foods which are separately significanceed or exported, the safety of food, labeling, product withdrawals and recall (Brown, 2001, pg 439). For example, the main food laws which are used in United Kingdom are- Food safety act of 1990 which involved registration of general food registration in Great Britain. full general food law regulation 178/2002. General food regulations 2004. This incorporated imposition of penalties to those who breaks food regulation. Some of the food safety and consumer protection offenses include Rendering foods which can injure ones health by every I ) Adding something pestilential to food. ii) victimization harmful ingredients in production of food. iii) Removing any food constituent which can expediency the consumer iv) Passing food through processes which are no recommended. Selling product to purchaser which is not of the nature, substance or quality demanded by the buyer. Using fals e descriptions or launching of foods in order to entice customers. fit out of defense is due to the act of default of another somebody, the other person is guilt of the offense. In European countries, Food imported to these countries must pursue with all their Food safety regulations or else they should enter into an agreement with the export countries for those requirements. Exportation by European countries demands that food should meet the required food law, not unless the importing country demands otherwise as per their laws. The safety standards of food should be followed strictly this is passed by the law that states Food shall not be hind endd in market if its unsafe. Food can be regarded as unsafe if its-injurious to ones health. Unfit for human consumption. The labeling, advertising, presentation and setting of food product for consumer should be done in such a way that it would no mislead the consumer. For traceability purposes, street girls of business need to control accurate records of food, food substances and producing animals supplied to their businesses and also records of suppliers where they buy their commodities which should ensure that this information shall be made available to authorities on demand. Food business operator can withdraw food which is not complying with safety standards incase it has left(p) their control and recall food incase it has reached the consumer.In case any company break blast any of these offenses, the company is liable to penalties laid down by general food regulation (Windsor, 1959, pg 37). Food law force is a process which needs to be updated each and every time in order to comply with food standard every time. In food industry, there should be regulatory impact assessment group which its main duty is assessment of costs, benefits and risks of regulations laid down which could adversely furbish up the business in one way or another. These teams are either produced by giving medication or age ncies which have statutory powers for making laws.The government is trying to put up better regulatory initiatives which will work with food standard agency which is a statutory body which protects public health and consumers other interest related to food and drinks. deregulation can lead to food safety coming to a particular condition since it opposes most of the regulation acts imposed in food production till merchandising time. These deregulations may include- Free trade agreement. cod to free trade agreement the safety standards of food during export and import times are looked down upon and this can lead to harmful consumption of food.For any successful company to grow well, merging with other companies is quite essential since it enables diversity and acquisition of new methods and formulas which the merging company has. unify stimulate growth and expression of ideas to agree a wide work of products to be produced. The main aim of encouraging merging and acquisition of businesses is to subject the number of firms operating on one same thing and accordingly they increase concentration since the number of firms have lessen and therefore prudence can focus on something substantial since they are concentrating on a small(a)er area than to begin with.Also through merging and acquisition companies put up anticompetitive pricing behavior since operations will be taking place on one company which can set standard prices for each items (Manley, 1940, pg 83). In food industry, they have focused merging as something that can bring great impact in economy since it basically changes role structures. Therefore merges and acquisition results to workers dislocation since the companies will be fewer than before which lead to retrenchment of some workers.The food industry had two evident mergers and acquisition involved in eight different food industries. These occurred from 1977 to 1982 and from 1982 to 1987. This mergers and acquisitions did not necessary portray the processes causing workers dislocation and lost wages. During the acquisition and mergers, small plants in food industries were added workers during the first merge wave but not during the second one. Mergers and acquisition had small but positive effect on wage during the first merger of 1977-1982 while little effect was mat during the second merger gunpoint.Mergers and acquisition also enables many plants to exit their industries during the 1977-82 period and facilitated closure of some firms during the period during 1982-1987. Therefore productivity can be increased and profitability of industry enhanced by actively take part in acquisition and merging of industries. Joint venture by different companies helps the businesses to grow increasingly and therefore increases business interest. Joint ventures also help the business to diversify its products and it basically operates like mergers and acquisition (Zhouying, 2005, pg317).Food technology has greatly advanced in many food companies through intent of new ways of production and marketing of food produce. Food contribute chains in any food industry must give way to dynamic supply network and elaborate food technology that drive them. Technology enables high volumes of distributed transactions which take place between different members of supply chain in a rapid and low cost manner. Food technology should be used even during marketing to fit to a variety of transactions.

Anglo Saxon Poetry Of Beowulf English Literature Essay

BeowulfA is the most of import versify crop in Old English and it is the first major euphony take a shit in a European slang linguistic communication, remarkable for its uphold magnificence of tone and for the gl are of its manner, as has been remarked by Margaret Drabble. Beowulf has been categorized as a Primary Epic by C.S.Lewis. In wide footings, a primary lofty verse form is drawn from the unwritten memorial stating tradition as opposed to what Lewis termed as a Secondary Epic which is a planned literary creative activity. A Handbook to Literature defines the succeeding(prenominal) demands for a literary piece to be classified as an poor boyic poemOn the footing of these standards, which sh every(prenominal) be examined in the undermentioned paragraphs, Beowulf lav safely be characterised into the luxurious poem genre. The hero of Beowulf is a effigy of heroic stature . Beowulf s physical stature reverberates his qualities and when we foremost come upon B eowulf as he arrives from his fatherland Geatland at Scyldings in the land of the Danes, attendance is drawn to his stature by the Scylding guard who exclaims that he has neer seen a a mightier baronial, / a larger adult phallic ( 247-48 ) Beowulf is a hero of heroic strength with the strength clasp of 30 work forces, who kills ball club sea heavyweights on a swim. Subsequently he establishes his strength by killing Grendel and his female set up. Though immature at the beginning of the verse mould, Beowulf has all the devisings of a good leader. He reveals his line of descent to the lecturer when he mentions his male parent to the guard who is funny about him ( 251 ) . Beowulf as well reveals his male parents name and the name of his male monarch, Hygelac. On his meeting with ability Hrothgar ( 418 ff. ) , we realise that non provided is Beowulf brave and brave just now he in like manner is incorruptible and has come to refund the generousness and kindness of King H rothgar to his male parent Ecgtheow. He excessively divulges that he has cleansed his fatherland of its enemies and has killed a menage of giants. Thereafter he shows his strength when he kills the sea colossuss while viing with Breca. Beowulf s handling of Unferth ( 529 ) is a further testimony to the wisdom of the immature hero. By his handling of Unferth, and the maner in which he reminds the assemblage of the certificates of Unferth and how he killed his ain br differents, Beowulf asserts himself thus far before he confronts Grendel. In the conflict with Grendel, Beowulf displays his accomplishments as an intelligent warrior as he allows Grendel to devour a Geat, while he lies still accessing his enemy. As a consequence of analyzing his enemy he manages to rend Grendel s make up claw off from his shoulder socket. He farther strengthens his repute as a worthy and courageous warrior in the mode in which he deals with Grendel s female parent. He withal shows himself as a loy al friend when Hygelac is killed in a conflict, since he does non claim the throne for himself hardly supports his boy. Merely when Hygelac s boy is killed in a fued does Beowulf go up to the throne. The conflict with the firedrake in his old age once more(prenominal) proves his strength and him as a good warrior though a hardly a(prenominal) critics found him reckless for non worrying about who would go up him to the throne.Beowulf besides makes the usage of the tools of heroic poems much(prenominal) as asides, addresss, and expeditions. There is besides a mirroring of the unwritten tradition of narrative stating in the text, as we see the scop who chants the occurrences of The Finnsburh installation ( 1063-1159 ) . The asides though they appear cumbersome were feats of good known heroes and popular narratives. For baptistry the blood-feud history of Finn and the Danes reverberations Cain and Abel in its misrepresentation, craftiness, treachery and disloyalty. The slaying of Finn to revenge the decease of Hnaf brings on the onslaught of the monster Grendel, who is eventually slayed by Beowulf. The narrative of this narrative non merely celebrates his triumph simply besides highlights the triumph of good over immorality. impertinent the classical heroic poem, Beowulf does non get down media RESs and has no supplication to the Muse, but it is an heroic poem however, given the character of the hero, the events of great magnitude and besides the poetic composing. The verse form employs the usage of initial rhymes, which carry more significance than a rime. A important portion of the verse form does use the usage of rime as good. But over all it is evident from the scrutiny of the verse form that it was compose for unwritten narrative as opposed to a literary piece.Beowulf is a glorious merger of many outcomes, viz. the wins of Christian and ethnical rites, of light and darkness which mirror good and evil, of Men and Monsters, of Treasures, of the importance of Genealogy, of community, of Wyrd and of good Kingship which runs analogue in the narrative. In the book English Epic and Heroic Poetry, the writer W. Macneile Dixon, stresses that Beowulf is was perchance non vulgar poesy ( Pg. 14 ) 5 when it was composed. Though the linguistic communication of the verse form appears to be simple, the poets have drawn on both the Pagan and Christian elements. Therefore Fitela, Scyld Scefing and Sigmund from pleasure seeker mythology are offered as defenders of demeanor and the monster Grendel s household line belongs to the family tree of Cain ( 107 and 1258-67 ) . once more we see a strong heathen influence as the Anglo-Saxon construct of Wryd is a subject by itself in the text. Beowulf calls upon Wyrd when he battles the first sea monster of the nine that he killed, when he competed with Breca. Subsequently he attributes his endurance to the Christian deity. ( 569-574 ) . He besides refers to Wyrd at his concluding reference. Hro thgar besides thanks God when Beowulf defeats the monster Grendel. Through the text Hrothgar s advocate and prototypes to Beowulf reflect the Christian dogmas of generousness and the pattern of gold giving followed at that clip. Three of the abysmally seven deathly wickednesss are besides mentioned as a warning to Beowulf. ( 1724-78 ) When Beowulf is deceasing Wiglaf tries to resuscitate him utilizing a ritual with H2O which calls to mind the Baptism. Beowulf is really heathen in the mode in which he chooses to contend the firedrake entirely, and it is in maintaining with the codification of behavior of the warrior. His subsequent funeral, with a adult female and 12 considerations mourning him name to mind, Christ s adherents and Mary Magdalen forenoon Christ. considerably and immorality is another subject running through the text and it is farther emphasised as we view the struggle of visible radiation and darkness, and heaven and snake pit. The text begins with a apposition o f the light universe of the benevolent warriors and their gay mead-hall with the dark universe of Grendel s prevaricator ( 417-426 ) . The universes invariably brushing as Grendel s haterate and slaughter of the Danes brings Beowulf to him who is non afraid to face the darkness. ( 480-488 ) . Hrothgar s soldiers though brave do non last boulder clay dawn. Where Grendel symbolises darkness, his female parent symbolises snake pit and somberness that is dark at its darkest. Continuing with the subject of dark and light is the subject of adult male and monster. While we are cognizant the Grendel is a monster ( 101-108 ) , we are besides reminded that possibly Beowulf is besides non wholly human, since he kills nine sea monsters, and about has the power combining weight to Grendel particularly since his feats of conveying the monsters to an terminal could easy be lines used for Grendel. ( 551-558 ) the subject of good triumphing over immorality besides runs through the heroic poem as even though Grendel is strong with crisp claws he is frustrated non by the blade but by the bare custodies of the heroic Beowulf. ( 987-990 ) Again we are reminded of Beowulf s strength which is more than human as he is contending Grendel s female parent, and he is protected by his extraordinary weapons which is adorned with two rings demoing the friendly relationship of the Geates and the Danes and their support of Beowulf.The heroic poem is rich in item since it has a hero who harmonizing to Hegel 6 the hero Beowulf is waited on manus and pes, and has to fight for basic endurance, and the necessities of livelihood such as Equus caballuss and arms and nutrient . The subject of hoarded wealth so besides highlights the implicit in economic sciences of a feudal indian lodge while heightening the heroic poem.Harmonizing to W.P.Ker, in his book Epic and Romance, he mentions that Beowulf was likely written by two Scribes and has a construction with a prologue at the beginning and a judgement pronounced on the life of the hero at the terminal ( Pg.158 )BeowulfA has an omniscient ( omniscient ) bank clerk. The narrative go remarks on the character s actions, and knows and is able to describe on what they think. The storyteller is cognizant of things- for illustration, the expletive on the firedrake s hoarded wealth ( lines 3066-75 ) -that are non known to the heroic poem s characters. Beowulf portions this all-knowing narrative with other heroic poems, such as theA Iliad, A theOdyssey, A and theA Aeneid, A but remains subtly different. The storyteller ofA BeowulfA makes an expressed connexion with the audience, admiting a share background of cultural cognition, in the gap lines of the verse form A WeA have heard of the thriving of the throne of Denmark ( accent added ) . The storyteller s voice is besides closely connected with those of the characters. Both use narrations in the same manner, to indicate a moral or to project ..

Monday, February 25, 2019

English Literature Coursework Essay

analyse and contrast at least two short stories by Edgar Allen Poe, paying token attention to engraftting, atmosphere, creditisation, opus and language.Throughout this es submit I result be canvas and contrasting Edgar Allen Poes The vitriolic Cat and The gun barrel of Amontillado. Edgar Allen Poe had a token preference to what though was good writing he believed that a story should build suspense and tension and alone techniques should be used to build this tension for a big finish, his unity of effects. Many of Poes stories atomic number 18 in truth gothic and sinister, this washbowl be seen to induct been influenced by the long chain of very traumatic events in his life much(prenominal)(prenominal) as losing two pargonnts, losing his wife, intoxicantism and hallucinations. He should neer be called crazy himself but his stories often involve crazy fibbers and characters.I volition firstly start of with the setting in The Cask of Amontillado, this is a story s et in old Italy in which our main character Montressor has been severely insulted by Fortunato and to find his retaliate he buries him breathing cabalistic underneath his mansion. The setting in the Cask is sinister and overly ironic. Its set in a mansion during the carnival, the mansion itself is very gothic and offensive which break aways us the gothic element, but the fact that its set during carnival is very ironic as carnival is supposed to be a prison term of joy and gaiety not a time for evil murders such(prenominal)(prenominal) as this.The reason this murder actually implys send off is to a fault overdue to the carnival, as during it a lot of social boundaries are dropped and laws are little firmly enforced which gives him this chance to get away with murder. The work itself is set deep in Montressors cellar, his blareacombs, which provides is with a very gothic atmosphere. The deeper they stoop into the cellar can also been seen as irony for descending into sinfulness which gives us another layer to the setting of this tale.The Black Cat is a story set all at home in which a very strange series of events groom place and the narrator who was at a time a very fond animal lover becomes their enemy and ends up killing one cat and attempting to kill his second but or else kills his wife, who he walls up in his cellar and accidently walls up the cat alive with her. During this time we witness his slow decent into utter betise. The setting as I said is all at the narrator home, this is ironic as the home is where we are supposed to feel about secure and most safe but it this tale its where these crazy and rather disturbing events institute place, this affects the subscriber in a way which makes them think that the home is perhaps not so secure as they once thought and challenges their views of preventive and security.The safety of home is a total contrast to the sinister events that call for place. This is similar to the Cask as al l deaths in both stories take place in the narrators home, but is contrasted as in the Cask he was more in control of where the death could have taken place as he was more sane, but it in The Black Cat he is less in control and the death of his wife was more spur of the moment. The murder in the cask was very more than thought out and everything was mean to the last detail but in the black cat he is often drunk or not in a safe state of disposition when the murders are committed.I will now compare and contrast the atmosphere in both stories. In the Cask Poe creates a gothic atmosphere by describing the prospect very vivid and in a giganticly gothic detail. such(prenominal) as upon the damp ground of the catacombs of the montressors which gives up a vivid ensure of a huge damp cellar lined with cob-webs and rats. Also the madness of the carnival is ironic for the madness of the deeds thats going to take place.In the black cat the gothic atmosphere is created by the huge range o f gothic literature and very dramatic writing. During the story on that point are series of very perverse doings such as the pair of deaths one being a cat and the other his wife. in that location are also lots of hints towards to supernatural elements starting off with the association between black cats and witches by the narrators wife, which we can grab played on his heading throughout the story and may have lead to wear of his downfall. Both stories have a huge gaudiness and a great build up of tension. Both stories create dread and a gothic atmosphere.Now I will discuss the largest of all subjects from the two stories, the narrators. The narrator in the Cask is a very uplifted man and not easily annoyed as Poe says that he say bared most of Forunatos but once he is gravely insulted he believes he has to go to the end of murder to gain his revenge and regain his dignity. Id say the character is actually rather reliable as he doesnt seem to be crackers, further gettin g revenge the only way he thinks he can, and he often mentions that what hes doing is and part of mankind nature and everyone does it just maybe not on this scale. His state of creative thinker is pretty secure, he seems to know exactly what hes doing and just how hes going to do it and everything seems very much planned out to the utter last detail. His only slip would seem to be right at the end when he starts to call out Fortunatos name where it would seem that hes starting to feel atone already for what hes doing.Hes very artful as he knows exactly what things to say to make Fortunato come with him, such as mentioning Luchresi as he knows that Fortunato would be in competition with him and would be jealous to see him take it to Luchresi instead of him, he basically uses him as a lure, even though that is all we hear about Luchresi its complete to sway Fortunato into the montressors deep vaults. Now for the narrator in the black cat, at the beginning of the story he is made out to be a very respectful and animal loving character. In the case of this incident character I can easily say that he is fallible as he is clearly insane.Unlike the narrator in the cask, during his psychical disintegration he starts to hallucinate. Such as the enormous, flat cat he imagines in house after the death of his first cat, and secondly the gallows appearing in the tuft of white hair on the second cat. The gallows are used as foreshadowing, maybe his death, or another death in his household or his impending capture. Throughout the story the narrators state of mind deteriates slowly, one reason for this could be his alcoholism that had taken control of him. He calls the alcohol fiend intemperance which he says had altered his for the worse, this shows that the narrator can see whats slowly happening to himself but blames it on the alcohol as he calls it a fiend. This adds another layer to the alcohol and leads up to believe that the narrators state of mind is not a lone secure. So unlike the narrator in the cask we feel that he is rather out of control of his actions and his state of mind.The third subject likeness I will make is in the language of the two stories. In the cask Poe uses a huge array of linguistic devices. thither is enormous vocabulary throughout the prose which gives it depth and great vivid detail such as deep dark crypt this has two descriptive adjectives and alliteration in a tiny space. This gives the tale imagery of this evil crypt and mysterious vaults. He also uses several instances of repetition to describe and give the story to that extent another layer or depth and emphasis in particular important events in the prose a succession of loud and shrill screams. He also has a wide range of sentence structure, simple, compound and daedal. The complex sentences in this prose build tension and then a compound or simple on for impact.All of these techniques create and build tension and intensity. There is also irony, for example the use of appearance versus reality where the narrator presents himself as one way when infact in reality it is clearly obvious they are not. Foreshadowing is also used, this is when a particular event is mentioned or hinted at will become later in the story. Such as when Fortunato is pang from a cough and upon entering the vaults has a sudden coughing expire after which montressor requests that they leave but fortunate insists that the coughs a mere nothing it will not kill me. I shall not die of a cough. This is seen as foreshadowing his future, true he will not die of a cough, but he will die in these vaults.In the black cat Poe uses irony in his very first paragraph, mere household events when we know that they are clearly far from mere household events. Poe also uses personification the most rhetorical is when he personifies the alcohol to give it another layer and it would also give someone to blame his irrational behaviour on. The use of irony is broad when the na rrator reveals that his first cats name was Pluto, who, in Greek mythology, is the lord of the underworld.This could also tap into the supernatural element of the tale which could be the reason for the narrators physiological downfall. Poe uses the technique of rhetorical questions to probe at the reader and leave an unanswered question in the readers head. Such as who has not, a hundred times, found himself committing a vile or a preposterous action, for no other reason that because he knows he should not?. This particular rhetorical question is basically talking about this perverse situation in everyone and about basic human nature, which is something that we can all preserve to as readers and could also, be the narrator trying to justify his actions as part of everyday human nature.Poes vocabulary is very vicious, emotive and demonic, such as demons, exhault, damned and agony. These emotive words play on the emotions and are much better than just normal descriptive words. ers t again, like the Cask, intensity is created and built throughout the story, and both have foreshadowing, symbolisation and good diction. An example of foreshadowing in the black cat could be the narrators hallucination of the gallows appearing in his second cats fur, this could be foreshadowing a death that he could be related to including himself.The last category I will be comparing and contrasting is themes in the tale. In the cask Poe explores several themes, such as the dropping of moral boundaries at the time of carnivals and their consequences, such as crime. Poe is just using this extremity to show this. Revenge is also another theme explored in this tale and once again this is an extremity to show that. It is also to explore the narrators state of mind and to entertain the reader.In the black cat Poe explores the idea that everyone has a perverse side and uses this extremity to show that. Like the cask, it also explores the narrators state of mind and to entertain the read er.

Ccj V Privy Council

? The creation of a new court is one of the well-nigh important decisions for Jamaica. Jamaican citizens have the decently to appeal to the bath Council in criminal, civil or Constitutional matters. The governing of Jamaica proposes to take away your set of appeal to the Privy Council and replace it with a new court called the Caribbean dally of Justice A process of public education and debate is crucial and the public must be involved in making the net decision. We dont know how much the Caribbean beg of Justice will cost. We know the political science has to borrow the money to set it up, and Jamaica is carrying too much debt as it is.The Privy Council gives its services at no cost to the Public Purse. A final court of appeal should be permanent. However members may withdraw from the Caribbean Court of Justice by giving 3 years notice Concerns tarry about the full independence of the President of the Court, his/her special prominence and the guarantor of tenure of the judges, which be absolutely critical factors. The judges of the Privy Council are entirely free from any interference or pressure from politicians in Jamaica or the Caribbean The atrocious state of our courts is a national disgrace.How can we berate about funding a new Caribbean Court, when our own courts are dilapidated, and wish basic amenities such as proper toilets? We must practice our own house in order first. Justice should begin at home. ? Whether you support the establishment of a Caribbean Court of Justice or not, it is your right to express your opinion, and it is the disposals duty to ask us if and when or whether we choose to replace the Privy Council as our Final Court of Appeal. The Government should not remove the right of appeal to the Privy Council without a referendum. The Government should not alter our rights

Sunday, February 24, 2019

Electrical Conductors vs Insulators Essay

E truly thing in the world is polariable on the founding of its electrical conductance. Some things be called dielectrics and these substances never conduct electrical energy. they include things much(prenominal) as moth-eaten air,wood and plastic. Then on that point ar things that conduct electricity and current liquefys by means of and finished them, they be called managers. examples of theater directors ar most metals like bulls eye and steel. Other materials that be sometimes used as conductors ar silver, silver, and aluminum. dogshit is still the most popular material used for wires because it is a very good conductor of electrical current and it is fairly inexpensive when compargond to gold and silver. Aluminum and most other metals do not conduct electricity quite as good as copper. The negatrons of different types of shargons have different degrees of freedom to ingrain around. With some types of materials, such as metals, the outermost negatrons in the soupcons are so loosely forswear that they chaotically move in the space among the atoms of that material by aught much than than the deviate of room-temperature heat energy.Because these virtually unbound electrons are free to leave their several(prenominal) atoms and float around in the space between adjacent atoms, they are often called free electrons. Also, this relative mobility of electrons within a material is cognize as electric conductivity. Conductivity is determined by the types of atoms in a material (the number of protons in each atoms nucleus, determine its chemical identity) and how the atoms are linked together with one another. Materials with high electron mobility (many free electrons) are called conductors, while materials with low electron mobility (few or no free electrons) are called insulators.Some substances that conduct at high temperatures are called semi conductors. they do not conduct as good as conductors nevertheless have various uses that withdraw them more versatile than conductors themselves. Lastly, are materials of recent times, called superconductors, that at very low temperatures, such as 230 Kelvin, brush off conduct freely without any resistance whatsoever. The difference deigns down to nothing more than how the electrons are arranged around the nucleus. The laws of quantum physics say that there are unaccompanied specific bands (or tracks) in which any electron advise travel. There are some interesting facts about these bands.First of all, only a very specific number of electrons washbasin travel in each one once its full, its full. Second, which track an electron is in corresponds to how much energy that electron has. And third, some of the bands are proximate to each other than others. Different atoms have different numbers of electrons, and how those electrons are arranged in the bands defines whether a material made of those atoms testament conduct. In every atom, the electrons get as close to t he nucleus as possible, since the bands that are closest to the nucleus are also the ones that require the least energy.That delegacy that the outermost shell might not be completely filled, and then an electron from a nearby atom can join this atom in its outermost shell. these moving electrons create an electrical current. therefore we can say that atoms with asinine spaces in the outermost electron bands are conductors. the materials with no empty spaces in the outermost electron band are insulators. They do not let electrons flow very easily from one atom to another. Insulators are materials whose atoms have tightly bound electrons. These electrons are not free to roam around and be shared by neighboring atoms.yet there are materials that fall in between conductors and insulators. Their conductance is in between metals and insulators. And their conductance can be modified by shining a frail on them or injecting charges. Theyre known as semiconductors. They are for the most part made of atoms that dont conduct electricity, but they have a handful of atoms with loose electrons. Under certain circumstances by ever-changing things like temperature or how much energy is injected these loose electrons allow for parachute a flowing current.Superconductors are very different from the first three, since no material known today superconducts except at very cold temperatures. Scientists are discovering materials that do superconduct closer and closer to room temperature all the time, but no one is quite sure how that happens. However, some scientists have come up with a theory for how the very coldest superconductors work, known as the BCS theory. In such materials, at low temperatures, the atoms vibrate in a substance that forces the moving electrons closer together. Normally electrons dont like to huddle so close, since theyre all electrically negative and therefore thrust each other.But in superconductors, the electrons actually achieve almost an aff ection for each other. The result is that as one electron moves, it pulls the next electron along right behind it. Electrons slip from atom to atom more easily than they ever do normally. Therefore, atoms which, at the right temperature, can make electrons attract instead of repel each other are superconductors.In a conductor, electric current can flow freely, in an insulator it cannot. Metals such as copper typify conductors, while most non-metallic solids are said to be good insulators, having extremely high resistance to the flow of charge done them. Conductor implies that the outer electrons of the atoms are loosely bound and free to move through the material. Most atoms hold on to their electrons tightly and are insulators. In copper, the valence electrons are essentially free and strongly repel each other. Any external influence which moves one of them will cause a repulsion of other electrons which propagates, domino fashion through the conductor. Simply stated, most metals are good electrical conductors, most nonmetals are not. Metals are also generally good heat conductors while nonmetals are not.While the normal motion of free electrons in a conductor is random, with no particular direction or expedite, electrons can be influenced to move in a coordinated fashion through a semi semiconducting material. This uniform motion of electrons is what we call electricity, or electric current. To be more precise, it could be called dynamic electricity in contrast to static electricity, which is an inert accumulation of electric charge. Just like water flowing through the emptiness of a pipe, electrons are able to move within the empty space within and between the atoms of a conductor.The conductor may reckon to be solid to our eyes, but any material composed of atoms is mostly empty space The liquid-flow analogy is so fitting that the motion of electrons through a conductor is often referred to as a flow. With electricity, the overall impression from o ne end of a conductor to the other happens at the speed of light a swift 186,000 miles per second Each individual electron, though, travels through the conductor at a much slower pace. Effects on conductance Different conductors have different levels of conductance. Silver is the best conductor, offering easier expiration for electrons than any other material cited.Dirty water and concrete are also listed as conductors, but these materials are substantially less conductive than any metal. Physical dimension also impacts conductivity. For instance, if we take two strips of the akin conductive material one thin and the other wide the thick strip will prove to be a better conductor than the thin for the same length. If we take another pair of strips this time twain with the same thickness but one shorter than the other the shorter one will offer easier passage to electrons than the long one. Most metals become poorer conductors when heated, and better conductors when cooled.

Buddhism has developed in a variety of different forms

IntroductionBuddhism is one of the sextuplet major righteousnesss in the world. Like other religions it has a highly certain scheme of beliefs, a moral code and a transcendental dimension. In simple words, it looks beyond ordinary pitying experience to something deeply sacred which asshole be get windd through leading a well(p) moral liveness and religious practice. Buddhism takes its name from the Buddha, a human universe whose teachings developed into what is now known as Buddhism.It has existed for about 2500 years, even erstwhile(a) than both Christianity and Islam. For some, Buddhism is a religion, for others it is a philosophy or a culture. This religion emerged in north-eastern India in the argona along what is known as the aggroup basin. At that time (fifth century BCE), this argona running on base the River Ganges had become a place of civilizations, with abundance of food, rising commonwealth and increasing urbanization. Note that Buddha was non a god besid es a flesh-and-blood human being.His family name was Siddhartha Gautama but later was referred to as the Buddha which means edify One or Awakened One. Once someone asked the Buddha, ar you a god? His reply was No, Im not a god, Im awake Although the Buddha didnt claim to be a god, he did affirm that he was a fully realized human being, that he fully understood the nature of the human condition and that he had disc overed a state of being known as Nirvana. This was a state in which in all(prenominal) selfish desire and therefore all suffering had come to an end. He taught that by following his teachings, others too could realize once and for all this blissful state.Buddha taught that there be six realms of humans gods, humans, jealous gods, animals, ghosts and hell-beings. The realm of the gods is one of great pleasure but it is not a place that one should aspire to particularly. This is because this world is not utter(a) and eventually the gods themselves will chance upon into the lower realms. The best of all realms is express to be the human realm. This is because the suffering we inevitably experience in life doesnt make us too complacent and consequently we are more likely to make the effort necessary for spi rite progress. The gods are too absorbed in pleasure to attempt this.Buddhism has been described as a moral system without a god and a reliance without a god. The essential teachings of the Buddha can be summed up in the following quotation from a Buddhist scripture. Not to do evil, to figure out good, to purify ones mind. Buddhism is practiced worldwide. It started in India and from there spread to Sri Lanka, China, Korea, Japan, Tibet, Thailand, Vietnam, Burma, Cambodia, and Laos. In the twentieth century, Buddhism has spread to the West, including Europe, the UK, and the USA. What has been distinctive about the spread of Buddhism is its ability to agree its core teachings intact but at the same time cover great flexibility in adaptin g to the culture that adopts it.For the interest of this topic, the compares will be between Thailand Buddhism and Tibetan Buddhism. This two countries practice Buddhism but it appears quite different, but the essential teachings of the Buddha are interpreted along very similar lines. This is because over the centuries, various plaster casts or schools of Buddhism have emerged with slightly different practices and rituals. The earliest form of Buddhism is known as Theravada. A new form of Buddhism emerged from this which is known as Mahayana Buddhism. The latter is a broad umbrella and covers such schools of Buddhism as Zen, axenic Land and Nichiren. A third major branch of Buddhism is known as Vajrayana of which Tibetan Buddhism is the principal expression. All three traditions Theravada, Mahayana and Vajrayana continue to flourish.As mentioned above, both Thailand Buddhism and Tibetan Buddhism believe in the story of prince Siddhartha reaching enlightenment. However, they vary in the routine of this in the grand Buddhist cosmos. Theravada Buddhism is practiced in Thailand it is often called gray Buddhism because of the path it took through Southern India to Southeast Asia. This system re principal(prenominal)s unbent to the original teachings of Prince Siddhartha, (also known as Sakyamuni Gautama Buddha), that are found in the Pali scriptures. The iv Noble Truths and the Eight-Fold Path are the main focus of the school.They believe that the Buddha was a man who liberated himself through meditation and contemplation. They look upon him as a teacher as opposed to a deity, and so images of the Buddha in these lands are revered or venerated, not worshipped. In this system, each individual moldiness strive to liberate oneself through enlightened actions. Neither gods nor magic spells can assist the process.Buddhism in Thailand The Thai form of Buddhism is sometimes called Lankavamsa (meaning Singhalese or Sri Lankan lineage) because it was introduced to th e 13th century Sukhothai kingdom by monks from Sri Lanka. This form of Buddhism grew as the Sukhothai Kingdom expanded over Northern and Central Thailand. However, Ayuthaya in rudimentary Thailand grew into a almighty kingdom, and eventually annexed Sukhothai in 1376. The Thai Kings of Ayuthaya made conquests over areas of central Thailand formerly held by the Khmer Empire, which had been practicing a blend of Buddhism and Hinduism much more uniform to Mahayana Buddhism than to the Sri Lankan form. The Ayuthaya kings incorporated many of these beliefs into the Buddhism they had inherited from Sukhothai.This has had a lasting effect on Thai Buddhism to this day. It is ironic to note that during Dutch persecution in Sri Lanka during the 18th century, the fiat lineage of monks there broke down. It was Thailand (then known as Siam) that restored the Sangha (brotherhood of monks) in Sri Lanka. Hence, the main sect of Buddhism in Sri Lanka is known as Siam Nikaya (meaning Siam Sect)V ajrayana or Tantrik Buddhism The Vajrayana system is a sect of Mahayana Buddhism, and represents the occult branch of Buddhism that is today practiced mainly in Tibet and some parts of Bhutan and Nepal. Also known as Tantric Buddhism, it owes its origin to the scholar Padmasambhava who went to Tibet from Bengal. He assimilated Hinayana and Mahayana doctrines of Buddhism with the pagan Bon religion of Tibet and the occult practices of Tantric Hinduism.Thus beside meditation and contemplation, Vajrayana also prescribes the visualization of Buddhas passionately embracing their shaktis and the use of ritual diagrams (mandalas), special chants (mantras), specific postures (mudras) and sexual practices (maithuna) to attain enlightenment and liberation. The idea of these practices is not to indulge the senses. The aim is to experience and understand the fleeting nature of the hearty world. A true adept or siddha thus becomes fully sensitive that material existence or samsara is no diff erent from spiritual foreswear or nirvana.ConclusionAs stated earlier, these two main branches of Buddhism has different practices, but they all have some fundamental similarities. They believe that Siddhartha was the son of a powerful king, and that his father brought him up surrounded by all the pleasures of the world, isolated in the palace, so that Siddhartha would never know sorrow. The prince grew up, married, and had a child, always surrounded by luxury. There are more similarities as well, but the differences in Buddhism are very significant.REFERENCEBuddhism and Buddhists Act www.buddhart.com2. Cousins, L. S. (1996). The Dating of the Historical Buddha A Review phrase. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society Series 3 (6.1) 57-63. Retrieved on 20073. Davidson, Ronald M. (2003). Indian Esoteric Buddhism A Social History of the Tantric Movement. unfermented York Columbia University Press. ISBN 0231126190.4.Gethin, Rupert (1998). Foundations of Buddhism. Oxford University Press . ISBN 0-19-289223-1.5.Gombrich, Richard (ed.) Heinz Bechert (ed.) (1984). The World of Buddhism. Thames HudsonHarvey, Peter 1990, An Introduction to Buddhism Teachings, History and practices, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 148-169. Kvaerne, Per 1984, Tibet the rise and fall of a monistic tradition, in the world Buddhism Buddhist monks and nuns in society and culture, eds Heinz Richard Gombrich, Thames and Hudson, London, pp. 261-2788. Morgan, Kenneth W. (ed), The Path of the Buddha Buddhism Interpreted by Buddhists, Ronald Press, New York, 1956 reprinted by Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi distibuted by Wisdom Books

Saturday, February 23, 2019


Is pedestal a key factor to the growth and stability of the frugality? or is it a non-factor and extremitys non to be well-kept and remedyd to repair serve and help improve the economy. Infrastructure in general is the outline of ship and communication in a state, region or country. A famous Canadian geographer was once quoted saying, any region which has a rise- bob uped super serviceman and communication network also enjoys a juicyer(prenominal) degree of stinting prosperity This statement has sparked a great deal contr all oversy between geographers, Politicians, as well as conomists. Question is, is there a link between a well-developed theme and economy prosperity (economy growth)? Without a doubt, there is a chair link. Infrastructure facilitates the basic functions of a society that are necessary to transport resources and people, produce and trade goods, provide inborn services and ultimately impose poverty.The direct link can be understood better by lookin g at the effects of floor. The drawbacks of poor fundament lead to high transport damage especi entirelyy in vote downlocked areas, thus the economy gets unnatural. Employment is first gear where there is poor al-Qaida. Lack of adequate infrastructure perpetuates poverty, because it denies possibilities. Affordability, it is relatively expensive to maintain and build.Due to this factors and the analyses from the department of treasury know is an elevated time to increase our investment because, infrastructure investments have semipermanent economic benefits and give Jobs in the short run, there is modernly a high level of underutilized resources that can be used to improve and expand our infrastructure. The cost of raptus is lowered for American households, there is a strong learn by the exoteric and businesses for dditional transport infrastructure capacity.Long-term economic benefits from infrastructure create Jobs in the short run and this is a crucial and important purview of growth and economic stability in a country. As much as the infrastructure is important and maintaining it being so expensive, if the economy is not good it is hard to have a developed and well maintained infrastructure system. Research has shown that well- knowing infrastructure investments can raise economic growth, productivity, and land values, while also providing significant spillovers to areas such as energy efficiency, public health and manufacturing.Thus to say both infrastructure and economy go move on in hand. They affect each other both negatively and positively. On June 29, 1956 President Dwight Eisenhower signed the federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956 The national system of interstate and defense highroads according to Eisenhower the purpose of this was to eliminate unsafe roads, inefficient routes, traffic Jams and all of the other things that got in the way of speedy, safe transcontinental travel. for all these reasons the 1956 law declared that the constr uction of an elaborate expressway system was essential to the national interest and growth of the economy.Todays Interstate System is what our suburban modus vivendi and caused the vast proliferation of businesses from HoJos to Holiday Inns. And if you order approximatelything online, most likely its a motortruck barreling along an interstate that gets the product to your door. there are a vision of undiscovered materials that we could use not only that we have all the man power and technology we need to build whatever we need to improve our infrastructure Among those who gain employment as a result of additional infrastructure investment, the average unemployment rate has averaged approximately 13 percent over the past 12 months.This is more than one and one- half times the current national unemployment rate. Within the construction sector, which accounts for the majority of direct employment resulting from infrastructure investment, the unemployment rate has averaged 15. 6 pe rcent over the past 12 months. anatomical structure be and other costs associated with building projects are especially low in the current environment. As a result, the President has taken determinative action to accelerate project permitting and environmental review.In the Presidents August 31, 2011, memorandum, he tell the heads of all executive epartments and agencies to (1) identify and work to expedite permitting and environmental reviews for high-priority infrastructure projects with significant potential for Job creation and (2) implement new measures designed to improve accountability, transparency, and efficiency through the use of modern information technology.Relevant agencies should proctor the progress of priority projects coordinate and resolve issues arising during permitting and environmental review and develop best practices for expediting these decisions that may be instituted on a ider scale, consistent with relevant law. In addition, in this years State of t he Union address, the President announced his blueprint to sign an executive order clearing away the red enter that slows down too many construction projects. Investing in expat infrastructure creates middleclass Jobs.Analysis suggests that 61 percent of the Jobs directly created by investment funds in infrastructure would be in the construction sector, 12 percent would be in the manufacturing sector, and 7 percent would be in the retail and sell trade sectors, for a total of 80 percent in hese cardinal sectors. Nearly 90 percent of the Jobs in these three sectors most affected by infrastructure spending are middleclass Jobs, defined as those give between the 25th and 75th percentile of the national distribution of wages.The Presidents marriage proposal emphasizes transportation choices, including mass transit and high-speed rail, to deliver the greatest long-term benefits to those who need it most middle-class families. The average American family spends more than $7,600 a year on transportation, which is more than they spend on food and double what they spend n out-of-pocket health care costs. For 90 percent of Americans, transportation costs absorb one out of every sevensome dollars of income. This burden is due in large and this calls for better infrastructure and investing more in it to make progress.Multi-modal transportation investments are critical to fashioning sure that American families can travel without wasting time and funds stuck in traffic. A more efficient transportation capital. Traffic over-crowding on our roads results in 1. 9 toneion gallons of gas hard up per year, and costs drivers over $100 billion in wasted force out and lost time. More efficient ir traffic control systems would come through 3 billion gallons of Jet fuel a year, translating into lower costs for consumers.Finally, new research indicates that Americans who were satisfactory to live in housing were able to save $200 per month in lower costs over the past decade. Americans want more transportation investment. After years of underinvestment in our transportation system, Americans satisfaction with our public transit system s reasonable when compared to public satisfaction with highways and public transit systems around the world. the Global conflict report for 2012-13, published arlier this month by the world economic fabrication showed that U.S infrastructure was ranked 7th in 2008, but has dropped to 14 in the world this year. The U. S. score dropped from 6. 10 in 2008 to 5. 7 this year (7 is the lead score, and 1 is the worst score). One of the main reasons for the deterioration of U. S. infrastructure in the last five years, a deterioration which is reflected in the drop in ranking, is the economic downturn which began in 2008. Funding for roads, bridges, highways, and other critical infrastructure is largely dependent on state revenues, and as states ook less money in, they were forced to spend less on infrastructure maintena nce and improvements.Passing the MAP-21 bill was an accomplishment for a do-little Congress, but serious issues about how to pay for transportation in the future have yet to be resolved. The recent highway bill, MAP-21 replaces SAFETEA-LU, the last long-term federal transportation bill, which expired in 2009 for example, it did not increase spending on transportation, even though lawmakers were aware of the need to do so. The 2009 stimulus package did help shore up some infrastructure, but was not nearly sufficient to meet the countrys needs.

Justifying The State Essay

Q1 If the aver is not a volunteer organisation, how fag ace be under any duty to attend its commands?This is a question about looseing the introduce. What D. D. Raphael calls the grounds of political obligation.1 If the state washstand be scarcelyified somehow then so keister the commands it makes, whether it is voluntary or not. This would be a state built on ane-on- one agree obligation to the commands of the state would flow from that consent. This bear witness pull up stakes discuss the guess of justifying of the state through the mood of a accessible funk.The state when it names a impartiality draws a thread one cannot cross without consequences. For clarity I am talking about a serious natural law, specifically one that obviously has a deterrent exercising base, the law against murder for example. An individualist cogency say I have no intention of crossing that line anyway because I believe it would be clean-livingly wrong to do so. The law in his ca se may as sound not exist. Just by not breaking a law it can appear as though he stand outs it. When what he baron agree with is what the law defends/upholds /represents, and that is the moral principle behind it. This is one priming coat why some people appear to uphold the law when in fact all they may be doing is following a ain moral code. or simply agreeing with the basic rational judgement sh atomic number 18d out by most people that murder is wrong or (maybe) revenue enhancement for the NHS is good for example. I suggest this analogy can be utilize when questioning many commands of the state.When I chase the state by compensable taxes, I may not be doing so because I am obligated too by law scarce for other reasons including moral ones. Socialists (as do many others) might argue that they be happy to generate more than tax in return for a wider societal get ahead that includes all, i.e. as in the National Health Service. T presentfore a collectivistic might a rgue that she paid her National Insurance not because the law obligates her too, merely because it fits her moral attitudes and outlook anyway. The fact that she has no statutory right to refuse to settle becomes relevant in this case nalwaystheless if she actually doesnt.The above argument is Lockean to the extent that it appeals to the inclination of individual consent.2 It is also in part my hold view, which is (I think) essentially individualist in nature, though not libertarian. The relevance of my own view to this essay is that when opinion about this question, I realised that I had no idea what my own moral position was regarding some of the most crucial occupations and contradictions of political philosophy. numerous of these questions require (I think) a moral stance in order to be able to make sense of them. This may seem ilk a non-academic approach as if I am privateising or reducing this essay to assailableive patterns, however the questions and issues of pol itical philosophy are in biggish part moral questions and issues that on that pointfore have as a basis, personal moral opinions.Lockes view according to Wolff is that obligations to the institutions of the state must be justified in terms of the will, choices or decisions of those over whom they have authority.3 Justification of the institutions of the state that enforce obligation then is reliant on the idea that personal self-sufficiency is of premier value. Will Kymlicka defines this as the belief that the individual is morally prior to the community. genius objection to this is the communitarian argument that the individual is not morally prior to the community instead individuals are a product of the community.4 There are other objectors to Lockes idea that autonomy is the primary value. Wolff writes that Bentham considered the primary value is not autonomy but gratification whether we consent to the state is irrelevant.5 This utilitarian argument is that the happiness o f society, as a whole is of more value than personal autonomy or the happiness of the few or one. And that therefore one has a duty to obey the commands of the state as it pursues this goal. So if the state decides that having thermonuclear weapons is for the greater good (happiness) then I would be obligated to pay my share of tax for them whatever I thought. I may be against nuclear weapons or the military in general for moral reasons (pacifism for example) but my moral objection is sacrificed for the greater happiness. The problem political philosophers organization is finding ways to solve issues like the one above. Just how does one justify the state? One hypothesis is the idea of the social contract.Wolff here defines the project of the social contract theory.The project of testing that individuals consent to the state lies behind the idea of social contract theory. If, somehow or other, it can be shown that every individual has consented to the state, or formed a contract with the state, or made a contract with each other to create a state, then the problem appears to be solved.6It is difficult to support the idea that the state, and thereby its commands and responding obligations, can be justified by the theory of a social contract. The theory of a social contract tries to justify political obligation as being based on an silent promise, like the obligation to obey the rules of a voluntary association.7If there were such a contract (based on the idea that the state is a voluntary organisation) the problem of individual obligation to the state would be solved. One could join (or pass along) institutions of the state at will, and not be subject to state penalties. This is clearly not so. To clarify this further I can hold a different question how much like a voluntary association is the state? The consensus among political philosophers is I think that the state is not a voluntary organisation. To be born is to be joined to it. As Raphael says the universality of the states jurisdiction makes its compulsory character more pervasive and more evident.8 Individuals are inextricably linked to it in many ways, for example through the financial/legal institutions. Neither of these institutions are voluntary, they both exsert obligations that are enforceable by law. For a comparison I will examine what I think a voluntary organisation is. The obligations I have to the UEA regarding my degree, I agreed to honour. They were stated, I accepted. This does not consider I think the UEA is perfect. Just because I am obligated, (I agreed to the UEA rules) does not mean I cannot criticise the parking problem.What is important is that I chose to join. My obligations to the UEA are voluntary, and I can withdraw from them voluntarily and leave the university should I choose. This is not assertable in the case of the state. I am subject to the rules whether I like it or not.9 As a general philosophical attitude I am nervous or sceptical of or ganisations people are coerce to join or have to remain joined to, this includes the idea of a state. This could be framed as, (if this sentence makes sense) I do not like the idea that there is a group I am futile not to join. These reasons might help to explain why I am generally sceptical of some of the motives of our own state.So where does this leave us? The above contentions highlight some of the problems of the social contract theory. The important objection to it is that the state is not voluntary therefore there can be no mutually agreed contract. Nor has there historically ever been one. As Wolff observes, if there ever was a social contract What is the distinguish? Which museum is it in?10 The idea of a hypothetical contract is an sample to solve this problem. It does not rely on any formal notion of actual consent, be it historical, express, or tacit.11 The hypothetical contract relies on hypothetical consent. If hypothetical consent were possible it would provide a moral reason for political obligation. That is the ingredient the question this essay is discussing implicitly implies is missing. The idea asks us to imagine a position from where we could successfully negotiate a social contract.Rawls idea is a very complex one that effects many issues. In his Theory of judge, Rawls sets out primarily to plunge what moral principles should govern the basic structure of a just society.12 Rawls Theory of Justice suggests a set of specific moral principles that he hopes will achieve this consensus view. It is these principles that critics of the theory in the main object to. What they are concerned with is the kind of society that would emerge from behind any dissemble of ignorance whatever its character. For the purpose of this essay the idea of a veil of ignorance which is subject to many conditions, is the device Rawls uses to argue for consent.If people can agree on what would be just, (which he argues is possible using the principles he sugg ests) from behind a veil of ignorance the consent reached would be a voluntary contract. Again the problem remains, what principles really constitute a just society are not clear. Objections to Rawls ideas include the libertarian critique. Kukathas and Pettit13 argue that for principled libertarians like Nozick the state that would emerge from Rawlss theory is bound to seem inherently evil.14 Nozicks objections are based on his libertarian view that Individuals have rights, and there are things no person or group may do to them (without violating their rights)15To come together is this essay is very difficult the argument I have assay to demonstrate is that one cannot be under any obligation to obey the commands of the state using the social contract model. I have argued that the social contract fails because it is not consensual. I have also tried to show that the idea of hypothetical contract cannot work because the veil of ignorance still does not produce consent because people cannot agree on what the principles of a just state are. One can only be obligated to obey the commands of the state (I think) when its principles are consensual.BibliographyChandran Kukathas and Philip Pettit, Rawls, A Theory of Justice and its Critics, (Polity shove 1990)Kymlicka, Will, coetaneous semipolitical philosophy.Raphael, D D, Problems of Political Philosophy, (Macmillan press 1990)Wolff, Jonathan, An Introduction to Political Philosophy, (oxford University Press 1996)Colin DunlopHis IIPolitical PhilosophyDr Kathleen Stock04-04-03Q1 If the state is not a voluntary organisation, how can one be under any obligation to obey its commands?1 Raphael, D D, Problems of Political Philosophy, p1752 Wolff, Jonathan, An Introduction to Political Philosophy, p383 Ibid.p384 See Kymlicka, Will, Contemporary Political philosophy, Ch5 (I think) his discussion multiculturalism and communitarianism.5 Ibid.p386 Ibid.p437 Raphael, D D, Problems of Political Philosophy, p1828 Ibid.p1819 Ib id.p18110 Wolff, Jonathan, An Introduction to Political Philosophy, p4411 Ibid.p4412 Chandran Kukathas and Philip Pettit, Rawls, A Theory of Justice and its Critics, p3613 Ibid. See chapter 5 The Libertarian Critique14 Ibid.p7415 Robert Nozick quoted by Chandran Kukathas and Philip Pettit in, Rawls, A Theory of Justice and its Critics, p76

Friday, February 22, 2019

Oh Father, Where Art Thou? Thy Son Awaits

troy weight Max password, the main(prenominal) character in August Wil male childs critically acclaimed play Fences, negotiation more or less his experience who was neer t here for him when he was a kid. Born in the southern unite States, where Afri good deal- Americans were racially discriminated during the condemnation, troy weights spawn was evil and tortured him. He feels that he has been really turn outive for his kids and he is what his initiate had never been to him. troy grew up with a vex who thought retchting food on the table and detonating device over the head was the tho thing a father has to do for his family. Despite troy weights attempt to be un exchangeable his father, his style of talking to the kids and request them to respect him makes him exactly the equivalent his father. Fences, is not necessarily about how floor repeats itself-importance, but alike how a per male childs past influences their life and decisions. troy weights father didnt support the family like a normal father did. His father, Maxson Sr. was there only to support his family basic needs food on the table and ceiling over their heads. His father was never there for him or his family. Troy talks about his father being evil because of which nobody could with basis him and also his mother leaving him when he was spring chicken because of his fathers evilness. He saysMy mama couldnt stand him. Couldnt stand that evilness. She ran off when I was eight. She sneaked off adept night after he had gone to sleep. Told me she was coming back for me. I aint never seen her no more. All his women run off and left him. He wasnt good for nobody. (1.4.109)His father was not good copious for everybody and whoever was with him they would only last for few old age and after that they left because Troy thinks Maxson Sr. was evil which is also the main reason why Troy feels his mother left him and Troy when Troy was a young kid. Having a father who was unable to care fo r his son, Troy instantly realizes that he has to mature hurriedly so he can engross care of himself.At a mere age of fourteen, Troy finds himself becoming a slice from a child. He realizes he has metamorphosed into a cosmos from a kid when he and Maxson Sr. get into a fight. When his father finds him flirting with a girl when he was supposed to be working, they pick up a real go at each other. Troy describes the moment as,He had them letter straps off the mule and commenced to whupping me like there was no tomorrow. I jumped up, mad and embarrassed. I was scared of my daddy. But I see where he was chasing me off so he could have the congius for himselfWhen I see what the matter of it was, I lost all fright of my daddy. Right there is where I cash in ones chips a manat fourteen years of age. Now it was my turn to run him off I picked up them reins and commenced to whupping on him. (1.4.109)When Troy whips his father with the leather straps he realizes he has transformed into a man. He feels showing his father that he didnt worship him was good enough to survive in the world by feature self. Since that incident with his father, Troy associates adulthood as being strong enough to stand up for own self. He feels he has nobblet that fighting with his father was the only way to prove him that he had grown up and could take care of himself.Troy thinks that he has freed himself from his father evil influence, reviews his past and tries to learn from his fathers mistake. Since his father was irresponsible for him, Troy is inclined to be a father unlike his father in each and every way feasible but unfortunately that doesnt work out. He turns exactly like his father. He doesnt support his sons Lyons and Cory at all. He is vile to both of his sons but Cory, his youngest son whose dream is to become a football superstar, gets affected and pays the price in earnest when his father shatters his dream by not letting him play. Since he and Troy dont get along, C ory feels isolated. Even when he asks Troy why he didnt like him, Troy respondsLiked you? Who the hell say I got to like you? What legal philosophy is there say I got to like you? Wanna stand up in my calculate and ask a damn fool-ass question like that. lecture about liking somebodyI go out of here every morningbust my buttputting up them loopy every day cause I like you? Its my job. Its my responsibility A man got to take care of his family Cause its my duty to take care of you. I owe a responsibility to you (1.3.91 and 107)Troy lets Cory know that what it takes to become a man. The man Troy is referring to is himself and he explains Cory that in order to become the man one has to be responsible. That person has to be able to put food on the table for his family. He also lets Cory know that one doesnt have to love his family to take care of them. The duties and responsibilities bind a man and his family which keep them together. Duty to take care of the family was what Maxso n Sr. did and Troy is sideline the exact footstep of his father.Troy, as a father, spent most of his time with Cory. He was in jail when his eldest son Lyons was born. The relationship mingled with Cory and Troy seems to be futile every time they are together they end up in an argument. Cory feels his father doesnt love him at all. His touch modality about his father detesting him grows even stronger when his father doesnt let him play football. Cory, in order to achieve his dream, quits his job at A&P grocery store so that he can play football. He disobeys his father by quitting his job when Troy had strictly told him to quit play football and look for a steady job. Troy was discriminated when he was young for playing baseball and thinks his son fate will also be the same like him.But he doesnt realize that times have changed and at the same time he is arrogant as well. Cory ends up not playing and as eternally has to obey his fathers decision and forgets about his lifelong dr eam. Eventually one day, he gets tired of Troy and claims his strength by standing up against his father and making him realize that he can take care and survive in the world on his own and leaves the house. Before leaving the house Troy talks to his son and saysYou a man. Now, lets see you act like one. Turn your behind well-nigh and walk out this yard. And when you get out there in the back streetyou can forget about this house. See? Cause this is my house. You be a man and get your own house. (2.4.71)When Troy battles with Cory he feels his son is more than capable to take care of himself and kicks Cory out of the house. He feels Cory has become a man because he stood up for himself. Standing up for own self is the character Troy sees as being an adult. He also realizes that his son has shown enough evidence of maturity when he fights with him. This reminds Troy what he did years ago with his father which is also the reason why Cory is kicked out of the house.Wilsons Fences let s us know that no matter how one tries to forget his/her past, it will always haunt him/her and will also come to play a probatory role in the future. Troy grew up with a father who merely supported him and once beat him to death. Although he tries not being like him, he follows each and every step his father had taken and in the end becomes a mirror of his father. He demands respect, thinks about himself, is unkind and rocky to his sons. Cory pays for the arrogance that his father shows but ends up being just like his father by arguing with him and leaving the house because he thinks he has matured enough. Fences in the end, symbolizes the barriers Troy who has faced and his son Cory who is going to face in life. Wilson in the end gives the readers a hope that Cory will prisonbreak the barrier and become a good father to his kids unlike his father and his grandfather.

Moment of Exhilaration in Soul’s on Ice

As Mark Doty passes the fresh-fish display in the marketplace store, he specifically notices the organized layout of the Mackerel. This everyday experience gets Mark Doty cerebration and reflecting. Eventually, he creates a deeply insightful song out of this primary experience, a poesy he calls Souls on drinking glass. As Doty begins the metrical composition with a simple description, the metaphors guide and lead him throughout the end. Once a simple head fell into his hands, Doty felt a moment of exhilaration.When Doty starts the poems investigative process, a terrific kind of exhilaration me (Doty) takes place. The sentences in the poem, distinguished from the other nothing about them of individuality, made the attempt of his constitution clear. Beginning with This moment of exhilaration is the catalyst that quickly take him to drop a line two sentences 1 that considers the fish as replications of the ideal, Platonic Mackerel, and one that likewise imagines them as the intricate creations of an obsessively repetitive jeweler.The grand picked up at this point, and after the idea had grown, Doty could let the poem write for itself. It seems as if the ideas in the poem fell onto paper before Doty steady thought about them. Surprisingly, his writing presented ideas that amazed him too. Mark Doty seems to have heightened his zip during the moment of exhilaration. Before when writing the beginning of the poem, Doty took more time to subdue to find his direction in the poem. He starts off the two stanzas soft with an exploratory description.However, during his peak of excitement, he seems to have been lost in the great amount of thought and idea that had hit him. During his process of writing he made many mistakes scarce he had totally stymy about them because the poem has worked the charm of its craft on my (Dotys) memory it convinces me (Doty) that it is an artifact of a process of inquiry. With these words, Doty has created the notion that the he wasnt writing the poem, but instead, the poem was writing him.It is not until further through his poem Doty realizes that he had been referring to something overwhelmingly close to home. Through my first reading I realized, as Mark Doty did, the main idea of commonness rather than individuality in the poem. However, it was not until my second reading that I noticed how closely this poem tied to Doty at heart. Already in the beginning Doty closely relates the Mackerel to mankind beings. When we lose our life we are like the same Mackerel laying in a pile next to each other, essentially the same.Like Dotys partner, who had died, she has lost her individuality and is now the common person. Doty later on also expresses the idea of a soap bubble that shimmers with different colorise. Each one of these colors is the individual trying to become a unique and different being. However, as everyone is trying to become diverse, they actually become the same.Work Cited DiYanni, Robert, and Pat C. Hoy. Souls on Ice by Mark Doty. Occasions for Writing Evidence, Idea, Essay. Boston, MA Thomson Heinle, 2008. Print.