Friday, May 31, 2019

Fate as a Pitcher, Life as a Ball :: Character Analysis, Laertes, Claudius

Many people go through their lives questioning what would have happened if some aspects had been different. What if a persons worst enemy had been his/her best friend? Would he/she be a different person if he/she had grown up in a different town? Such questions as these can puzzle a person in reality, as well as in literature. In Shakespeares tragedy, Hamlet, the protagonist raises the question of fate in the second scene of the fifth act, Theres a divinity that shapes our ends. Through the actions of the characters, a shameful outcome is unfolded. Claudiuss designs to kill Hamlet ultimately kill Laertes and Gertrude. Polonius finds his death by spying on Hamlets conversation with his return. Finally, many of the tragical elements stem from the ghost of Hamlets father speaking to Hamlet about his murder. Hamlets quote shows that fate is a divine lunge at work to create an outcome. Each characters decision marks the curves that fate pitches into their lives. In the seventh scene o f the fourth act of Hamlet, Laertes joins Claudius in order to kill Hamlet. They devise a plan to have Hamlet and Laertes participate in a fencing match, in which Laertes used a pointed mark tipped with poison. Claudius intends to infect a glass of wine with poison in the case that Laertes fails (4.7.133-162). And for his death no wind of blame shall breathe, but even his mother shall uncharged the practice and call it and accident (4.7.66-69). These are Claudius words concerning Gertrudes knowledge of his plan. Such a phrase is foreshadowing of fate. During the match, Gertrude drinks from the poisoned cup (5.2.295-296). Laertes is also dupe to fate when he and Hamlet trade swords. Why, as a woodcock to mine own springe, Osric. I am justly killed with mine own treachery (5.2.311-312). neither Laertes nor Gertrude would have suffered their poisonous fate had Claudius not devised this plan to kill Hamlet. Furthermore, Claudius would not have had this plan if Polonius had never been k illed. And so have I a impressive father lost (4.7.25). The death of Polonius is the incident that prompted Laertes to visit Denmark in search of vengeance. However, the death of Polonius would not be a factor in this fate if he had not been conspiring against Hamlet. My lord, hes going to his mothers closet. Behind the arras Ill convey myself to hear the process (3.

Thursday, May 30, 2019

Impact Of Values Essay -- essays research papers fc

The Impact of Values-Clarificationon Ethics in the Helping ProfessionAmerica is faced with an overwhelming abundance of clean and social problems which seem to consume the fragilely woven fibers of our nation. What has happened to America? What can be d peerless to rescue the innocents in society from those who seem to prey upon them? Can ane person make a difference? Those in the hu slice service profession have felt a calling, have been affected by the appear hopeless perils of the weaker members of society and have stood to make a difference one step, one person one life at a time.How can one person make a difference in a world so big and so full of problems? America is a society that is virtuously starving. Values clarification, which is taught in public schools today teaches "since there are no eternal truths which are valid for this generation and succeeding generations, everybody has to find his own determine in his own time. There is nothing which is right and wrong for everyone, thus there are no absolutes" (Ed. DeMoss, 1986).Ethical issues lead to ethical decisions. These decisions quite often place the social worker in an ethical dilemma. The concept of values-clarification is reinforced by Marianne and Gerald Corey, authors of "Becoming A Helper". In their handwriting they say " middling differences of opinion can and do exist among social workers with respect to the ways in which values, ethical principles, and ethical standards should be rank ordered when they conflict" (1994). deciding what is morally right or morally wrong has been placed in the hands of the individual. This lack of moral absolutes has produced a generation miserably lacking hard direction for life.Society is filled with men, women, teenagers, and children of all races, cultures, and ethnic backgrounds seeking or requiring counseling for a myriad of reasons. Many are victims of abuse, many are the abusers, nevertheless all are victims of societys demon of moral disintegration. Sexual and physical abuse on children are painful realities of these demons that exist in society. The practitioner assigned to the set about who is the perpetrator in the abuse case is faced with an ethical dilemma when facing him in a helping relationship. Is it possible to be nonjudgmental toward this man?"Recognizing that all human beings have strengths and weakness... ...ook beyond the small cuts and look into the soul of a person and offer help and hope for healing and change. The burden is majuscule and societys declining value system makes the challenge sometimes seemingly unbearable just now change can come. Help is available. There is hope. The famous editor, humanitarian and writer of the book "Man without a Country", Everett Hale, gives those in the social service profession a candle in the darkness with these words, "I am only one, but I am one. I cannot do everything, but I can do something. What I can do, I should do and, with the help of God, I impart do" (ed. DeMoss, 1986). accomplishments CitedBass, N, (Executive producer) (1999, October 18). Today. National Broadcasting Company.Bullard, M. (Ed.) (1999, October 1-3). USA Weekend, 4.Chavez, L. (1999) Not Wrong at All. Readers Digest, 45-46.Corey, G. & Corey, M.S. (1998). Becoming a Helper, 119.DeMoss, N.L. (Ed.) (1986). The Rebirth of America, 123,223.Heffernan, J., Shuttlesworth, G., & Ambrosino, R. (Eds.) (1997). Social Work and Social Welfare, 110, 111, 140.Olasky, M. (Ed.) (1999, July 31). World, 71.Rosenblatt, R. (1999, May 3),Time Magazine, 88.

Consider how Blake Edwards Present Issues of identity and possession :: English Literature

Consider how Blake Edwards Present Issues of identity and possessionin Breakfast at TiffanysIn this essay, I am going to study the different techniques BlakeEdwards used to present issues of identity and possession in the filmBreakfast at TiffanysBreakfast at Tiffanys is a film that was directed by Blake Edwards in1961. It deals with romance and life in the 1960s. The film wasoriginallyBased on the book Breakfast at Tiffanys by Truman Capote, who wrotethe book during the 1958s, which suggests that he must haveexperienced the style of life in the 1960s.Holly Golightly, the most important female character, in the film wasplayed by Audrey Hepburn, who is one of the most famous Hollywoodactresses at that time. The film consists of many genres eg romance,comedy, so the film would suit a wider ranger of audiences. I dobelieve that the film was aimed at adults, because Blake Edwards has stipulation the characters in the film a complicated contrast of personalityand identity.Issues of ide ntity and possession changes and is revealed bit by bitthroughout the film. The director has made Holly Golightly the mallof identity and possession, and made every other character move aroundHolly, revealing her identity, personality and past.There are many different camera angles worry close up of Holly when sheis singing or when the characters are talking. The camera angles likeclose ups can often show what a character is thinking or what theirpersonality is like, for eg when Holly was singing moon river, theclose up shows that Holly is a gentile and kind person.Hollys cat hasnt got a name, in fact we dont know anything aboutthe cat, where it came from or its gender. In the film Holly says,that she would only name the cat when she feels that she is richenough. The cat is a symbol of mystery, that represents Holly.There are many types of dialogue. Sometimes during the film physical structurelanguage and silent dialogue, is used to express a charactersfeelings, for example In th e scene of the party, we see a womanstanding in front of a mirror, crying then laughing, without sayinganything. Facial expressions are also used to show a charactersfeelings instead of saying their feelings. This could be moreeffective than dialogue, eg when Holly says she is not going backwith Doc, the expressions on Docs face show us that he is deeplyhurt.Holly seems very strange sometimes, she compares he past boy friendswith objects that mean much to her. Holly says that you can tell how

Wednesday, May 29, 2019

Shiloh :: essays research papers

ShilohThere are several elements of literature that can be analyzed when discussing a comfortably short or desire story. The elements are fleck, characterization, theme, setting, point of view, irony and symbolism. I read the short story Shiloh and have chosen to discuss the plot of this story. This is a great story expressing the way miscommunication in a marriage can tear the marriage apart. This is story is told in the first person by Leroy Moffitt. He is the main character who deals with conflicts within himself, his wife, and the environment around him. Shiloh first begins discussing how Norma Jean Moffitt (one of the main characters) is working at transforming her body by to a fault working out. Leroy Mallard, her husband, had been a truck driver 15 long time of their marriage. Now he is no longer driving truck, has suffered a highway injury to his offshoot and is in a wheel chair at home. The first conflict in this story is in the midst of Leroy and his distance from h is wife for such a long time. Mrs. Moffitt has been trying to cope with her husbands absence by doing other activities such as working out, going back to school, and visiting with her mother. Another conflict resides within Leroy himself. He has not been there for his wife and he is trying to make it up to her in any way he can. This couple has been through the loss of an infant child in addition to Leroys absence. This is another issue that is causing them to experience the conflicts they do. Mr. and Mrs. Moffitt do not speak of this lost child, which causes more conflict between their marriage together. Leroy, once being settled at home with nothing to do, began to work with his hands to construct or design objects. He wanted to conformation his wife a log cabin as he was making replicas out of toothpicks. I think him wanting to build this house is to prove to himself and his wife that he can still be productive and good for something. The relationship Leroy has with Norma Jeans mother is quite different. Any time she comes around, he makes jokes instead of having real conversation with her. I think he makes the jokes to ease the tension and to not address real issues that are present. Leroy has also stated that all those years driving in the same neighborhood he did not take the time to notice how much it had changed.

Tuesday, May 28, 2019

Witmans Calvalry Crossing the Ford and Cranes War Is Kind :: essays research papers

US Clergyman Henry Emerson once said, The tragedy of war is that it uses mans best to do mans worst." And I agree with him. What is it virtually the human race and war anyway? Well, Carl von Clausewitz also said that, "To secure peace is to prepare for war." I also agree with that. fight is an ironic subject at times. And war can also be a way of life for some people. Walt Whitman and Stephen Cranes poems have no similarities and they both have different ways in writing about war.     In Whitmans poem, Cavalry Crossing a Ford he writes about a Cavalry marching off to war. From my research, Whitman recreates a scene from Union General Lovell H. Rousseaus raid through Alabama in July 1864, when his troops were crossing the Coosa River at disco biscuit Islands Ford. He brings to life his poem by describing many details about the Cavalrys surroundings by using lots of visual imagery. It has ofttimes visual imagery considering the length of the poem. W hitman also writes using free-verse. The speaker in the poem is taking his time to view nature he isnt in a rush to go to war. war is not what the speaker wants to think about. He wants to savor what whitethorn his last moments. For he knows that when he crosses the ford, he may not return home alive.     In Cranes poem, War is Kind he writes about how war is kind, though in reality, war it isnt. War is never kind. The speaker is telling a maiden not to cry for her dead lover. He tells child to not cry over his dead father, and for a mother not to cry over her her dead son. Crane uses lots of irony in this poem. Which leaves the reader thinking the speaker is cold hearted. The speaker in Cranes poem is sarcastic about war and is sardonic in his perspectives considering war. Although underneath the sarcasm and coldness, the speaker could be feeling anguish, and sadness. That person readiness be feeling bitter because he may have experienced war first hand or may have lost a loved on in war.

Witmans Calvalry Crossing the Ford and Cranes War Is Kind :: essays research papers

US Clergyman Henry Emerson once said, The tragedy of fight is that it uses mans best to do mans worst." And I insure with him. What is it about the human race and war anyway? Well, Carl von Clausewitz also said that, "To secure peace is to prepare for war." I also agree with that. War is an ironic subject at times. And war can also be a way of life for some people. Walt Whitman and Stephen Cranes poems direct no similarities and they both have different ways in writing about war.     In Whitmans poem, Cavalry Crossing a Ford he writes about a Cavalry marching off to war. From my research, Whitman recreates a scene from Union General Lovell H. Rousseaus raid through Alabama in July 1864, when his troops were crossing the Coosa River at Ten Islands Ford. He brings to life his poem by describing many details about the Cavalrys surroundings by using lots of opthalmic imagery. It has much visual imagery considering the length of the poem. Whitman also writes using free-verse. The vocalizer in the poem is taking his time to view nature he isnt in a rush to go to war. War is not what the speaker wants to think about. He wants to savor what may his last moments. For he knows that when he crosses the ford, he may not return home alive.     In Cranes poem, War is Kind he writes about how war is kind, though in reality, war it isnt. War is never kind. The speaker is telling a maiden not to cry for her unfounded lover. He tells child to not cry over his dead father, and for a mother not to cry over her her dead son. Crane uses lots of irony in this poem. Which leaves the reader thinking the speaker is cold hearted. The speaker in Cranes poem is sarcastic about war and is sardonic in his perspectives considering war. Although underneath the sarcasm and coldness, the speaker could be feeling anguish, and sadness. That person might be feeling bitter because he may have experienced war first hand or may have muzzy a loved on in war.

Monday, May 27, 2019

Reflection paper on guest speaker Essay

Casa younker Shelter is a nonprofit organization located in Los Alamitos, California providing emergency temporary shelter for homeless, runaway and fling youth. They have 12 licensed beds dedicated to providing 24/7 shelter c be for youth ages 12-17. Their goal is to provide adolescent youths with a galosh place, and with an hazard to stabilize their lives. It is always their goal to reunify the residents with their families if it is a safe environment for them to return to. In 1978, Myldred E. J matchlesss, decided that Southern California posited a safe place for runaway and homeless youths to turn to, who at that prison term had few places to go. She believed that no child should be living on the streets, under freeway overpasses, bedevilment about their safety and their next meal. So, at the age of 69, Myldred founded Casa younker Shelter. Statistics show that from the time Casa Youth Shelter opened their doors to date, they have served an estimated 12,000 kids as well a s 44,000 family members who were also affected.Today, Casa Youth Shelter has expanded to six bedrooms with 12 licensed beds. There is also a recreation room, a library and a data processor center. In 2000, the shelter added a 2,000 square-foot Counseling Center to the lot. The center is used for counseling, parenting classes and a variety of outreach activities. In 2008, Myldreds cottage was transformed into the Myldred E. Jones Recreation Courtyard, on the dot as she had always wanted. Casa Youth Shelter provides the following programs and servicesShelter Short Term Program and Extended Placement ProgramCounselingOutreach to SchoolsYouth Leadership ProgramParenting ClassesA typical day in the life of a resident while staying at Casa isa very structured one beginning with wake up time at 630 am past followed by breakfast and chores through 840am. At 845 residents attend a morning process group which is their initiative therapeutic experience of the day. At 10 they have a snack and then they are allowed recreation time for games until lunch time at noon. At 100 they attend art therapy followed by another snack at 300. From then to 6pm they attend 2-3 group sessions followed by dinner which they all eat together including the staff. After dinner residents get free time until its time for bed at 930pm.Pamela is currently the Community Outreach Director at Casa Youth Shelter, where she has been employed for approximately 1 yr. and 10 months. She has also received her LCSW as a Social Work Professional as of February 2014. Prior to her current position she was a School Social Worker at East Whittier urban center School District for 4 yrs. and a Childrens Social Worker at Los Angeles County Department of Children and Family Services for 5 yrs.The key points of Pamelas lecture I would have to say were how Casa Youth Shelter was started, her position there, the requirements to be a resident there, the statistics on how many kids and families have been served the re, their mission statement plus goals and eventually all the different services that Casa Youth Shelter has to offer their residents. I can tell that Pamela is very passionate about what she does. She started as an intern at Casa years ago then moved on to other homophile Service Agencies and finally returned to accept a full time position where she first started her journey. All the while striving to do the best she could do at helping people who were in desperate need for services. She just like her mentor Mildred want to help people through their struggles and make a difference in peoples lives.I was very impressed by Pamelas lecture and motivation. She was organized and very well informed about all the materials she was presenting. I strongly agree with Pamelas views on Human Service issues and the need for caring people to help others. As a matter of fact when I started my journey here at Cypress College I was originally merely going formy certificate in Substance Abuse bu t now I have decided to continue on to get my AA in Human Services. I tire outt know what I could possibly do different to make the services that are currently being offered at Casa Youth Shelter any better than they are now. I think they have a great program with all the services that would be needed to ensure the goals of the clients to turn their lives around and succeed in their personal lives.This class has affecting me in many positive ways. I have always known that I am a very warm, caring and helpful person but this class has enlightened me as to how many different Human Services Agencies are out there to be a part of. I really enjoy the way that Mr. Zager teaches the lessons, he is very thorough and breaks things down to make it easier to understand. I also enjoyed doing the extra credit assignment through the careers center because it helped me understand what my strengths are and what career choices I might be good at. I dont know exactly where I will end up when Im don e with school but I am certain that it will be somewhere helping others though.

Sunday, May 26, 2019

Using one case study film assess the relationship between the industrial context and the representation

The representation of gender in the British charter industry end-to-end the mid-sixties can be seen in a variety of examples and can be seen as indicative of a general shift in ethnic attitudes. In this assignment, we shall be concerning ourselves with the film Goldfinger in particular. Goldfinger was do in 1964 by the British film company (SPHP, 1964). What is of particular inte emit in this film is the iconic portrayal of the female character that spawned something of a tradition for depictions of idealised femininity.We will pay particular interest to the significance of her role in relation to the rest of the characters in the film. However, we shall first outline a number of industrial and cultural changes that were occurring throughout the 60s in the British film industry. The British film industry of the 1960s saw a degree of significant changes that reflected the cultural mood of this period throughout greater western culture (Coates & Topham 1968).For example, the notion of popular culture was befitting highly marketable at this time and the subsequent move off from WWII was becoming something of an artistic focus (Laing, 1986). Essentially, Hollywood was promoting a new liberalisation that coordinated sexual imagery as a counter to traditional gender roles based upon social utility (Ewen & Ewen, 1982, p. 37). Although this was embraced throughout the film world, it affected the British film industry in two notable ship canal. This is given by Curtis who states that,What was striking to us an audience of artists, writers, journalists and filmmakers was the assumption evident in all these films, that making picture palace could be a first-person-singular affair, and that film language could be as complex and highly individual. In contrast, The films supported by the one source of public backing at the time, the British Film Institutes Experimental Film Fund, were very definitely cinema shorts, stepping-stones to cinema features. (Laing, 199 2, p. 258)This use of short film techniques in which quick iconic symbolic representation was used in relation to characters made for a coarse embrace of the film techniques being produced by Hollywood. This incorporated sexual and iconic symbolism at its fore (Nuttal, 1968). This was a distinct detraction from the emerging realist depictions found in the dickens-like portrayals common to the kitchen sink drama or the playfulness of slap stick to that had gone before (Hebdige, 1988). However, it is perhaps unwise to think of the industry as becoming entirely divorced of its British artistic tradition.Rather, Thompson states that, We must remember the underground of the ballad singer and the fairground which handed on traditions to the nineteenth century for in these ways the inarticulate conserve certain values a spontaneity and capacity for enjoyment and mutual loyalties despite the inhibiting pressures of magistrates, mill-owners, and Methodists. (Thompson, 1963, p. 63) It is with this notion of Hollywood driven sexual symbolism and the British tradition of mutual loyalties that we will now turn to the example of Goldfinger and the depiction of gender.Goldfinger was suck up in the genre of the international spy film indicative of the archetypical male hero James Bond (Cohan & Hark, 1993). It features Bond as the main hero and Goldfinger as the main antagonist. However, it also involves the depiction of strong and sexualised female characters in crucial roles. In this, we see that although the females are highly sexualised objects and in many ways used by the two main protagonists, they are not subordinate or peripheral to the plot (Hebdige, 1988).This sexualised empowerment is articulated by their being made indicative to the overall consequence of the film. The leading lady is an ready and very beautiful woman caught between the loyalties of the two opposing characters. She is modelled on the former depictions of mantrap founded in the 40s and 50 s as seen in Marlin Monroe (Nixon, 2003). However, unlike Marilyn Monroe who was portrayed as a sexually exploitative and superficially unintelligent female figure, she is given as an intelligent woman caught in an ethical dilemma.This clearly highlights the implementation of the depiction of the female in line with Hollywood at this time (Murphy, 2004). However, with the character traits of intelligence and up front honesty and naivety, this is perhaps indicative of the British tradition and the mutual loyalties that drive the spontaneity of the plot. Unintentionally playing upon Bonds sympathies, she is taken away from Goldfinger and given the approval of the Bond character. However, in her death scene we see the significance of her betrayal.Essentially, she is cast in Gold, which is indicative of the title, and left to die. However, this form of martyrdom is not a moral consequence of her flirtation between characters, but rather an idealisation of the power of iconic female sexu ality (Mort, 2004). Furthermore, it evokes a cosmopolitan compose by symbolising the Egyptian sexual princess Cleopatra. In doing so, this reflects a strong use iconic sexuality to superficially relate to the international, cosmopolitan domain (Green, 1998).In summary, it would come forth from the depiction of gender of the film Goldfinger, that British film was moving to incorporate a cosmopolitan portrayal in relation to the changes in culture of the time. It would bet that in the depiction of gender, sexuality was an explicit ingredient as was the case in Hollywood films. However, rather abandoning all sense of British tradition, the use of sexual symbolism was employed through a plot involving mixed loyalties and unseen conditional forces. BibliographyCoates K Topham A (1968) Industrial Democracy in Great Britain a book of readings and witnesses for workers control capital of the United Kingdom MacGibbon and Kee (ed. ) Cohan, S. , & Hark, I, R. , (1993) Screening the Male New York Routledge Ewen, S. , & Ewen, E. , (1982) Channels of Desire Minnesota University of Minnesota Goldfinger, Sony Pictures Home Entertainment, (1964) Green, P. , (1998) Cracks in the Pedestal mom University of Massachusetts Press Hebdige, D. , (1988) Hiding in the Light London Comedia Laing, S., (1986) Representations of Working Class Life 1951-1964 London Macmillan Mort, F. , (1996) Cultures of Consumption Masculinities and Social Space in late twentieth-century Britain. London Routledge. Murphy, P. F. (2004) Introduction, in Murphy, P. F. (ed. ) Feminism and Masculinities, pp. 1-21. Oxford Oxford University Press. Nixon, S. , (2003) Advertising Cultures Gender, Commerce, Creativity. London SAGE. Nuttal, J. , (1968) Bomb Culture London MacGibbon and Kee Thompson, E, P. , (1968) The Making of the English Working Class Harmondsworth Penguin

Saturday, May 25, 2019

Louisiana & The United States Essay

atomic number 57 is one of the United States of America states whose capital is located at Baton Rouge. The state is characterized by a blue unique multilingual and multicultural heritage. It is home for many ethnic themes. The Louisiana creoles people and the French speaking Cajuns be possessive in the southern Louisiana state and have distinct cultures. Blending of these cultures has resulted to Creole lifestyle immerging that has become deep rooted cultural, societal, economical lifestyle of the Louisiana until the 20th century when it was overtaken by the Anglo Americans.Creole ancestors settled in Louisiana before 1803 when it was purchased from the Western Europe, and Senegal, they then settled in the State along the main water ways. Continuous mix of these disparate of France, Senegal and Germany led to take of the trust and this become a dominant social cultural and economic lifestyle till the 20th century (Carl Brasseaux, Keith Fontenot, Claude Oubre pp68-81). Acadi ans are the ancestors of Cajuns the Acadians are French speaking people of Nova Scotia Canada and New Brunswick.After the Britain won the Indian and French war, the give outd families and the Acadians were settled in camps in England colonies for 10-30 years and those who break loose settled French Canada, upon being freed they scattered in Canada Mexico, France with majority seeking refugees in South Louisiana. Cajun were considered as a lower class national as their name means but it was in 1970 when they disclosed their natural resources of gas and oil when their culture music, food and lifestyle was internationally recognized in .Creole is a term borrowed from Portuguese and Spanish by the French government. It means the native products and the colonys people, whereas the meaning of Cajun is to subject to debate variant apathetic. The contrast of Acadia is either Greek or India which means a camp set up in a good place. The Creole was an expression of colonial spook in both the Spanish and French Regimes. The Creole then formed its own identity and they were normally referred to as the French creed.Colonial French was a language spoken by French Creole who were of white origin a hybrid of French- West African language is usually spoken by the black creeds. Its the hybrid language that is mostly spoken by the people of central Louisiana currently whereas the creed French is extent. The whites that are as a result of French Spanish mixture were called French creed and the mixed up mulatto population was called creeds of color, African creed or black creed (Carl Brasseaux, Keith Fontenot, Claude Oubre pp 40-81).The Cajun have to date retained their unique phrase from the French language and assortment of other cultural characteristics that usually distinguish them from other ethnic group un standardised what its popularly believed by the Cajun communities, Cajuns did not solely descend from the Acadian exile but to a fault descended from other numerous groups after intermarriage over several(prenominal) generations the intermarriages with the Germans, Spanish, Native Americans, French creed and the Metis.The French creeds who were settled in the rural areas were absorbed by the Cajun have a genuinely pure French dialect despite the influences from the Acadians. Unlike the French creoles, the Cajuns ancestors are not French origin but of Hispanic, German, Canary Islanders and Filipino settlers as a result of intermarriages The geographical localisation principle of the Cajun has a strong relation to the lifestyle of the Cajun people. Those who settle at Atchafalaya Basin, a long the Westlands and Bayous adapted a water base lifestyle.This water based lifestyle included their economic life of trapping, hunting and fishing, the Cajuns who settled southwest Louisiana prairies adapted a land-based lifestyle, that included farming sugar cane and rice, cows rearing among other agricultural practices. Many creoles and Cajuns migrated and settled part Arthur and Beaumont seeking oil related jobs since oil drilling become a major economic activity in the 19970 1980. The Cajun music originated from French speaking people that were Catholics of Canada.Fiddle was the most dominant instrument in the earlier years but with time, the Acadian has also become popular, Jazz is a popular music of the Blade Creole that has been popularized in the 20th century. Both the Cajuns and the Creole sing the zydeco music, but initially it was only(prenominal) sang in the Cajun French, but the blade creoles added some linguistic elements to the zydeco music. Nowadays, the zydeco music is sung in Cajun French or English and a few do in black Creole.The zydeco is closely related to American blues, Cajun music jazz and the swamp music and the most common zydeco music instrument is the frottoir just like the Catholic Church but nowadays they have joined other religious sects. The culture of these two ethnic groups was deep rooted in t heir biotic community catholic and cuisine, they observed many catholic practices like the lent, holy week and the merdi gras (fat Tuesday). The Creole identity has been ignored since late 1960 by both the non creoles and creoles themselves after the emergence of the Cajun pride and the Louisiana French development council conception.Since then you can travel to New siege of Orleans, the original birth place of creoles languages and identity of the west of Mississippi river where creoles families lay and find them referring themselves as Cajuns. Cajuns movements have divided Louisiana into Cajun French Creole and black Creole, but its however noted that Cajun initially referred to a separate subset of the Louisiana francophone. The colonial French and the Louisiana French are no longer fluently spoken by most creoles and this had catalyzed the neglecting of the Creole people. The creoles identify is a race versus culture but not recognized nowadays.The creoles of Louisiana are rec ognized people having the following mixes, Spanish, French, Africans and American ancestry and Creole is accepted as a big culture group that share Spanish and French ancestry (Ira Berlin PP 290-325). The cuisine is a unique cooking style that originated from new Orleans and adapted by both the creoles and the Cajun but its greatly influenced by the Americans, French Caribbean and the African Gumbo is traditionally a Creole dish which is of the features of the cuisine, other features of the cuisine include the jambalaya all these dishes are commonly prepared by both the creoles and the Cajuns.Despite efforts to have one national language in Louisiana, the francophone Louisianans have bosomd the necessitate to maintain their language. This led to the Cajun movement that pioneered the establishment of the council for development for the French in Louisiana. This council initially was advocating for the use of standard French in Louisiana but the pressure and protests by the Creole c ommunity and the Cajun community has forced the adoption of all varieties of French that includes the creoles and the Cajuns in Louisiana.This has had good fruits since it seen as a way of incorporating Francophone Louisiana with the other francophone world. Although the Cajuns were discriminated in the earlier times, the French Revival Movement has convinced the Cajuns to be proud of them selves, further more, the Cajun French is being taught in the public schools. Due to social factors that have led to the creoles French loosing their identity, the Cajun French has become more politically powerful than the Creole French currently. The Cajun French are becoming more dominant as the Creole French become extinct.Currently its only the black Creole who identifies themselves as the Creole people and there are very few Creole speaking people below the age of six years. As the Louisiana Creole are languishing, three movements, the Un Cajun Committee, the southern heritage reinforcement creoles and the C. R. E. O. L. E INC. these movement have accused the French movement with the intention of making the Creole extinct and there the few Creole have place themselves with a unique culture meant to be preserved.Initially its the French Cajuns who were marginalized but today its the opposite as its the French Creole who are faced with the problem of racial and linguistic marginalization. REFERENCES Ira Berlin (2000) Many Thousands Gone, Harvard University Press, Harvard Carl Brasseaux, Keith Fontenot, Claude Oubre (1996) Creoles of color in the Bayou Country, University of Mississippi press, Mississippi Shane K. Bernard (2003) the Cajuns, University of Mississippi press, Mississippi

Friday, May 24, 2019

Islamic Influences On The Renaissance

Muslim Influences On The renascence BY Ashley Islamic Influences on the renascence Islam is a religion that is roughly as old as Christianity itself. The both argon genuinely closely related, with only a few differences the two observe differences concern the Godhead macrocosm a single being rather than a Trig-Un entity like the Christians believe, and who exactly was the Chosen Prophet of God. As these differences are tantamount in severally conviction and are conflicting, it is natural to assume that both faiths would be at constant odds with champion an new(prenominal).History offers more than enough material to back up that lain, plainly the focus of this paper ordain not be the conflict of the faiths. Instead it will focus on the Islamic curves on the rebirth period of Europe. However, the two faiths dont want to coexist with each other, so when one gains power, they eliminate the others deflect to the best of their ability. thither are two key factors in which Islam left(p) a very lasting mark that cannot be ignored and discarded, no matter the effort put into doing so.Education and computer distastefulitecture are two aspects of culture in which Islam left an influence on cultures and faiths all across the globe, including Christianity. To understand why Islam play such a big role in the reach of education and architecture, it mustiness first be understood what Islam is and where it came from. Islam is a faith that traces its origin to Abraham, who is said to arrest established the original covenant with his God. This God is placed at the inwardness of all Abraham religions. Therefore, God is the stub of Islamic practices and beliefs.The major beliefs, as manpowertioned above, are that God is only one being, a complete, all- powerful, single deity. There are several(prenominal) other aspects to Islam than those that have been described here, but none of which are important. The only attribute of Islam that is relevant to this di scussion is the fact the faith and reason go hand-in-hand in Islam. Muslims were encouraged to pursue knowledge of the natural world around them. This helped them gain an appreciation for the intricate and harmonious nature that can be found in God, or as He is known in Islam, Allah.There is a period in succession in which the Islamic world experienced something akin to the conversion of the 14th 17th centuries. This period is known as the Islamic luxurious ripen. While the Renaissance was a time of cultural increase in the sectors of the humanities by taking lassie aspects from history and building off of them -imitating and innovating, the Islamic Golden Age was also a time of cultural growth in every sense of the religion quiticularly in the fields of academia.The movement can be seen in establishments such as the House of cognizance that the Muslims built in Bagh protoactinium. The Muslims quest for knowledge was not only limited to their own discoveries and libraries they sought to bring all the knowledge of the world under one roof. Baghdad was not the only city to be come in such a great center for acquisition cities by means of break the Islamic empire allowed suit and became centers for learning for Muslims and non-Muslims alike. Cities that rivaled Baghdad were the city of Egypt and the city of CORBA in Al- Andalusia (Islamic Golden Age. Www. Electroluminescent. Com). For five centuries, the Islamic empire as a whole enjoyed phenomenal growth in every aspect of culture. The Islamic people not only developed the academic side of their culture, they developed the humanitarian side as well. Most of the areas in the humanities will have little effect on the main idea of this paper except for one the only area of once is the architectural style that the Islamic people developed that would influence the Renaissance period that comes to mind in the western World.To better understand how Islam played a part in Renaissance architecture, chivalri c architecture must be discussed and understood. The architecture style that was imitated and innovated in the Renaissance was the Gothic style. The features that define this architectural style are the ribbed vaults, flying buttresses, and mostly notably the point arch. Each of these features made it possible for architects to programme and build taller buildings than the Romanesque style allowed. The definitions for each of the elements of Gothic architecture will come from the Encyclopedia Britannica website.A ribbed vault is define as follows arching and intersecting stone ribs support a vaulted ceiling surface that is comprise of mere thin stone panels, which greatly reduced the weight the vaults weight. (Gothic Art. Encyclopedia Britannica. ). The next feature of Gothic architecture to be defined in the Encyclopedia Britannica is the flying buttress. A structure consisting of an inclined bar carried on a half arch that extends, or flies, from the upper part of a palisade to a pier some distance away and aeries the thrust of a roof or vault.A pinnacle often crowns the pier, adding weight and enhancing stability. The design increased the reinforcement power of the buttress and allowed for the creation of the high-ceiling churches. (Gothic Art. Encyclopedia Britannica. ). The third, and most important, feature of the architectural style to be defined is the pointed arch. The importance and significance of this feature is pointed out by many scholars and architects. At About. Com Architecture, at that place is an article specialally about pointed arches, and we can see this claim manifested.During the Gothic era, builders discovered that pointed arches would give structures amazing position and stability. They experimented with varying steepness, and experience had shown them that pointed arches thrust out less than circular arches, says famed architect and engineer Mario Salvador. The main difference between Romanesque and Gothic arches lies in the pointed devise of the latter, which, besides introducing a new aesthetic dimension, has the important consequence of reducing the arch thrusts by as much as fifty percent. In Gothic buildings, the weight of the roof was supported by the arches rather than the walls. This meant that walls could be thinner. (Gothic Style Architecture. About. Com. ). This is where some scholars argue that the Islamic world had an influence on the Western architectural style. Some believe that this feature came from all the conquests of Islamic cities and towns, such as the Crusades. But there is strong evidence that the pointed arch was being industrious in Islamic architecture in the lead it became to be part of the Western styles, such as the Gothic architectural style.Examples of this claim are the Lazar of Seville and the true up duomo in Spain. By these two examples, we can see that the Islamic influence in Western Europe from the seventh hundred onward played a crucial role in the influ encing of the development of the Gothic architectural style. It is through these early influences that the Islam Empire managed to leave their mark on the Christian Renaissance that would come a few centuries later. The Renaissance took the Gothic architecture style and built its own style using the Gothic one as a base.The style that came out of Renaissance Italy came to be known as the Renaissance architectural style. The innovation that the Renaissance style made upon its Gothic base was to go back to the roots of antiquity. Referring to the Metropolitan Museum of Art weeping, an article on renaissance architecture stick outs a definition of what the Renaissance architectural style emphasized holy ordinations and architectural elements such as columns, pilasters, pediments, interrelates, arches, and domes form the vocabulary of Renaissance buildingsAs in the Classical world, Renaissance architecture is characterized by harmonious form, mathematical proportion, and a unit of me asurement based on the human scale. (Architecture in Renaissance Italy. Muteness. Org. ). This was the first form of an architectural style from the Renaissance period that utilize the Gothic style as its base. Another style to innovate on the Gothic architectural style came in the later part of the sixteenth century that was very widely used in Spain during the Spanish Golden Age, which is alternatively known as the Spanish Renaissance.The Baroque style evolved from the Gothic style and was widely favored by the architects in Spain. The Baroque style, as defined by the Encyclopedia Britannica weeping, emphasizes Complex architectural plan shapes, often based on the oval, ND the dynamic opposition and interpenetration of spaces were favored to heighten the feeling of motion and sensuality. Other characteristic qualities include grandeur, drama and contrast (especially in lighting), courageousness, and an often dizzying ramble of rich surface treatments, twisting elements, and g ilded statuary.Architects unabashedly applied bright colors and illusory, vividly painted ceilings. (Baroque Architecture. Encyclopedia Britannica. ). Even this style, however, found itself being innovated upon during the Spanish Golden Age. There were two styles that came room the Baroque style, the Hearing style and the Churchgoers style. The Hearing style is defined as being extremely sober, naked, and oddly accomplished in the use of granite ashlars work. (Hearing. Boundless. Mom) The later style to come from the Baroque style, the Churchgoers style, was much more preferred to the former due to the sociopolitical application of it. The Churchgoers style is defined in the Encyclopedia Britannica as follows In addition to a plethora of compressed ornament, surfaces bristle with such devices as broken pediments, undulating ironies, reversed volutes, balustrades, stucco shells, and garlands. control was totally abandoned in a conscious effort to overwhelm the spectator. (Churli shness Architecture. Encyclopedia Britannica. ). The reason the Churlishness style was preferred is that it allowed the patron, which was the church in most cases, to design and build buildings that were extravagant and grand. These were seen as symbols of the patrons status and power in society. A good example of Just how the Churlishness was used can be seen in the Cathedral of Santiago De Composites. A picture of this building can be found in the appendix of this paper.The reason that all of this discussion of the many architectural styles to come out of the Renaissance period is that even the last to be discussed, the Churlishness style, still incorporates the pointed arches of the Islamic-influenced Gothic style. The feature that can be dated back to the seventh century has lasted throughout the centuries and found itself still being implemented a thousand years later. The reason being is that the arch was based upon extensive study of architecture by the Muslims. Studying the world around them is what the Muslims did, and did well, for several reasons.The Muslims studied much more than Just architecture, they studied all the subjects science, art, ethics, etc. It is through their academic studies that Muslims and the Islamic Empire continued to influence the Renaissance. During the Islamic Golden Age, scholars had to have many skills to be an effective and contributory part of society and solve whatever problems that arose. These men who had a wide range of skills to draw from are known as Polymaths, or Renaissance Men as they have been introduced in class.These Renaissance Men, or as they were called in the Islamic world, Hakes, had backgrounds and working knowledge bases for various fields of art and academia. As an interesting side note, in the research material I have gathered there is special mention of Leonardo dad Vinci when explaining what a Polymath is. This must go to show how much respect Leonardo dad Vinci gained all around the world, and no t Just within Christian circles and history books. Getting back to the topic at hand, Hakes were held in higher regard for their efforts of move to further mans understanding of the world around them.This was particularly done through the fields of science. In science, Muslims had managed to make leaps and bounds over the Christian portion of the world. superstar ay that Muslims had left their mark in this area of study was in the field of optics. According to the website Collaborationists. Com Bin al-Hath (Lazed) wrote the Book of Optics, in which he significantly reformed the field of optics, empirically proved that vision occurred because of light rays entering the eye, and invented the camera obscure to demonstrate the physical nature of light rays. (Islamic Golden Age -Science. Collaborationists. Com. ). In the same section he is described as the first scientist for his scientific method, in which he had shifted focus from human perception to empirical evidence. Islamic Gold en Age -Science. Collaborationists. Com. ). A version of the scientific method based off of Bin al- Hatchways would soon be realized in the Christian world when they Renaissance would come about. In that quote from the website, there was mention of a device that is known as the camera obscure.This device was one of many to come from the Islamic Golden Age. For a short comprehensive list of technological advances to come from the Islamic Golden Age include The camera obscure, coffee, soap bar, tooth paste, shampoo, distilled alcohol, uric acid, nitric acid, alembic, valve, reciprocating action piston pump, mechanized water clocks, quilting, surgical catgut, vertical-axle windmill, inoculation, cryptanalysis, frequency analysis, three-course meal, stained glass and quartz glass, Persian carpet, and celestial globe. Islamic Golden Age Technology. Collaborationists. Com. ). There are several other inventions that were adopted and implemented by the West before the Renaissance came to be, such as the modernized astrolabe and the hybrid Utrecht. These technologies were around from before the Islamic Empire, but the Muslims innovated upon them ND made them much more effective and easier to use. It is safe to say at this point that the Islamic Golden Age could very well be called the Islamic Renaissance if they had wanted to revive the memories and themes of the past.Fortunately, all they saw was the need to move forward and give the people of the world a better understanding of the world around them. When it comes to science they didnt take the field lightly. That is why they improved on the astrolabe, so that this little tool can provide a better understanding of the cosmos. The field of uranology in the time of the Islamic Golden Age was based upon the eccentric model, in which the earth was the center of the universe.The technological advances made in the time period and the brilliant minds from different cultures all over the world help dispel some of the p ossible misconceptions that the field of astronomy had at the time. Ptolemy studies and models were taken gathered by the Hakes and corrected. New fields on astronomy were also introduced, such as the field of astrophysics and celestial mechanics. some(prenominal) notable Hakes were instrumental in the advancement of the field of astronomy. The evidence for these claims will be cited from Collaborationists. Mom After Japer Muhammad bin Ms bin SSHKirk discovered that the heavenly bodies and celestial spheres were subject to the same physical laws as Earth, the first elaborate experiments related to astronomical phenomena, the use of exacting empirical observations and experimental techniques, the breakthrough that the celestial spheres are not solid and that the heavens are less dense than the air by Bin al-Hath, the separation of natural philosophy from astronomy by Bin al-Hath and Bin al- Shasta, the first non-Ptolemaic models by Bin al-Hath and Maddeningly Urdu, he rejection of the Ptolemaic model on empirical rather than philosophical grounds by Bin al-Shasta, the first empirical observational evidence of the Earths rotation by Nanas al-Din al-Tis and All Squish, and al-Birdbrains early hypothesis on circular inertia. . (Islamic Golden Age -Astronomy. Collaborationists. Com. ). These individuals are part of a movement that may be called the, Scientific Revolution before the Renaissance, as it is claimed on the Collaborationists. Com website. Other names for this movement are based upon the school that these scholars originated from, the Marsha School. Other advancements that came from this school deal with the theory of heliocentric vs.. Geocentricism. While there was never any general consensus about which theory was correct, there were experiments done in which the results that were produced supported the theory of heliocentric.This theory was later reinforced by the experiments of Galileo and other astronomers of the Renaissance period. These clai ms, however, were shunned by society for religious reasons. In order for the field of astronomy to be better understood, there had to be advancements in the mathematical formulas and equations to better explain the phenomena that astronomy presented. The field of mathematics was greatly influence by Islam. The most important of all the advancements made by the Muslims was the development of algebra. There were several other advancements made in terms of the calculus, trigonometry, geometry, and other aspects of mathematics, and each of them in turn were innovated upon by mathematicians during the Renaissance period.Mathematicians from here focused more on the practical application of math than the theory that the Muslims had focused on. These can be seen in the addition mathematical operators such as plus and minus, as well as new grouping structures such as the cube and firm roots of numbers. Algebra however, became a cornerstone for the mathematical field ever since its developme nt in the Islamic Empire. Without it, the other areas of math, like trigonometry and geometry, would have had to base their trading operations in a different model. Other ways to use mathematics other than in the field of astronomy is in the field of medicine. Medicine is largely dependent upon the culture in the ancient times.When the Muslims introduced science into the field, it became more universal across the ultras of the world. Before Islamic influence, there were physicians whose sole responsibility was to oversee the diagnosis and treatment of complaintes. The methods employed by these physicians largely depended upon the physician himself. With Islamic influence, treatments of physicians were given more specific quantity and type of medicine to treat a specific illness. This revolutionized the medical world by leaps and bounds all across the world. These mathematical applications also allowed for timeliness to be given to illnesses to better determine the stage of an il lness based upon the symptoms displayed at the time of diagnosis.One aspect of the medical field that was improved upon by the Muslims and improved upon again by Renaissance men, women and scholars was surgery. The Muslims improved surgery by introducing the practice of dissecting bodies that had recently passed to determine what the cause of death was, the autopsy. Another practice the Muslims had introduces was quarantine. This could have come in handy in the later Middle Ages when the bubonic plague ran rampant across the region. Muslims were also very good at drawing elementary diagrams of carious bodily functions and remainss, such as the circulatory system of the human body. One Renaissance scholar managed to use this information and build upon it.Miguel Server was the first person in recorded history to describe pulmonic circulation of the human body. To explain such a thing, the physician would most likely have a working knowledge base of the field of physics. Physics in i tself is a universal subject, but in pre-Renaissance times it largely depended upon the accepted social assures and on their understanding of natural philosophy. Islam managed to separate the two in a much more effective way than previous attempts had done. The experimental methods that were used by the Hakes allowed for a much more structured and detailed look into the mechanics behind the physical world. One Hacked in particular was fundamental in advancing the field of physics during the Islamic Golden Age.Bin al-Hath (mentioned earlier who revolutionized the field of optics) is the key player in the advancement of physics. His early version of the empirical scientific method was crucial in moving forward. Bin al-Hath, along with several other Hakes, had formed crude theories of the laws of the physical world, which Isaac Newton would finalize and come known for. Muslims are also known for their contributions to the arts, but unfortunately the Christian and Islamic view of the a rts and humanities varied and often conflicted. In Christianity, the creation and possession of symbols and depictions of God and other Holy things is perfectly acceptable, and at some points in time actually encouraged and enforced.In Islam, it is almost forbidden for there to be any visual interpretation of God and His realm. The Islamic way to portray God in art was by way of calligraphy and the dome that is present on every Islamic mosque. It is because of this conflict, both in traditions and in beliefs, that one will have a very difficult time trying to make any connections during a specific period in time. During the Renaissance period, it is almost nonexistent. Islam definitely had influence on earlier artwork due to the heavy Islamic presence throughout the Iberian Peninsula, northern Africa, and Spanish regions. As far as the Renaissance goes, they wanted to go back to the roots of antiquity, not the recent past.Islamic art did actively influence the Renaissance through ar chitecture by way of the pointed arch however. Muslims also made huge advancements in the areas of scientific study, particularly those of astronomy, mathematics, medicine, and physics. These advancements were built upon and innovated even more when the Renaissance men and women came to their own conclusions on the subjects Galileo on astronomy, Copernicus in mathematics, Server in medicine, and Newton in physics. These Renaissance men are but a few of the many influential figures who were a part of the Renaissance. It is through the fields of academia that Islam had the biggest influence of the Renaissance, and it is a fact that needs to be more widely known.

Thursday, May 23, 2019

Contemporary Issues in Criminal Justice Essay

The coupled States Criminal Justice System is a fundmental part to society that foc mathematical functions on protecting citizens in the United States Constiution as wellspring as ensuring each individual is law adbiding law and not commiting serious acts of crimes. Each law was put in state and federal statues to ensure it continues and as time has agitated some of the laws micturate not changed. In present day, the vicious justice establishment spunks comptemporary issues as well as trends that not only pre disco biscuitd today but in the future and how important each member of society film a significant value to the wrong justice constitution. For some decades the criminal justice system has endured many issues and problems that are currently questioning exactly how fair United States Criminal Justice system is to citizens and criminals that participate in both misdeameanor and violent bump offenses.The Corrections Department is match slight specific department that faces many controversies involving the validilty of ones constitutional right of the Eighth Amendment. The Founding Fathers created one of the famous amendments that prohibits the law from enforcing cruel and unusual punishment in capital punishment. At one time, capital punishment consisted of electrocution, firing squad, and the gas chamber. Unfortunately, many individuals consider that this form of punishments were cruel and unusual and many states eliminated these methods in their executions. In present day, lethal injection is the new method used in state executions that have not banned the last penalty as a form of punishment. The destruction penalty is used in only 32 states as of 2014 only the re-creation of lethal drug cocktail makes the world ponder if the lethal injection method is a form of cruel and unusual punishment.The issue of the new confederacy of lethal injections drugs have many opposers speculating should the death row inmate have the legal right to know e xactly what is behind the newly developed death penalty drugs as well as if it against the Eighth Amendment. Two death row inmates in the State of Oklahoma pleaded with the higher courts to disclose any information pertaining to the ingredients of the drugs however the Oklahoma self-governing Court specific in ally stated, This court holds that the secrecy provision does not violate the inmates constitutional right of access to the courts. The Oklahoma Supreme Court said the only remaining issue, then, is whether the states failure to disclose its source for the drugs prevents the prison houseers from challenging their executions using the Eighth Amendments prohibition oncruel and unusual punishment.The court decided it did not(CNN,2014). Following the ruling, the stay of executions of Charles Warner and Clayton Lockett were uplifted and were scheduled to a double execution on April 29, 2014 that would forever change the proper protocols of execution guidelines and the Cruel and U nusual Punishment clause of the Eighth Amendment. Clayton Lockett received the first injection around 623 pm and ten minutes following his injection he was unconscious. After the doctor noticed he was unconscious he administered the last two drugs that would execute Clayton Lockett. Between 644 and 656 pm the doctor that was administering the medical procedures of the execution addressed that the inmates vein had collapased that led for the drugs to either absorb in his tissue or leaked out(The Guardian ,2014). Immediately the inmate passed away of a massive heart attack.Following the execution, the other inmate that was supposed to be execute right by and by Lockett did not face the punishment and currently he is on a 180 day stay until the state government can conduct a full investigation into the botched execution. Supporters of the death penalty believe the execution was conducted appropriately however opposers believe he faced a slow frightful death. The question remains go out the death penalty in the State of Oklahoma be abolished or test the drugs before they are administered on death row inmates. As more as someone may commited such a heinous crime such as Lockett and Warner these offenders are given rights off all the amendments of the United States Constitution and it is their right to address violations to higher courts so they can determine if it did occur. The death penalty has many advantages and disadvantages and the criminal justice system is constantly fighting the battle to keep it alive and well.Prison overcrowding is another contemporary issue that is currently affecting the criminal justice throughout the United States. Society is aware of the consequences involving committing a crime, however for offenses that are considered non-violent and the offender who has not been in trouble with the law in the past faces severe punishment such as a violent offender. Drug offenses is one crime that caused correctional facilities population to skyrocket and instead of finding the best alternative for punishment prisons face an unkinown number of crimes within the facilities. In the State of Oklahoma, approximately 26, 539 offenders are incarcerated in priosn whereas probation has a population of21,085(American Legislative Exchange Council,2014). Statewide Harm Reduction Coalition(n.d.) states, previous to the current prohibition era the U.S. Prison population was a quarter of what it is today. But 30 years ago the War on Drugs was launched.Before that the prison population had been level for over 5 decades. 70 to 75% of people in prison are drug war prisoners. Drug use, arrest and imprisonment rates along with data on sentence length show that people of color unfairly bear the brunt of the drug war(para.4). The war on drugs is the primary reason for the increasingly amount of prisoners in facilities throughout the United States and if state legislation ever comes to the decision to stop the battle to a greater extent in all probability overcrowding will not be a substanstive issue. Additional reasons why the American Corrections system is overcrowded are mandatory minimum sentencing, denial of parole, unaffordable bail, poverty, and Post captivity Syndrome.The final contemporary issue that is facing the criminal justice today is the increasing amount of complaints involving police officers that are involving in police bruatility and excessive use of force. As society has learned in the past of cases of Rodney King, it happened then and it is still happening. However, just because one cop does it does not mean all of them do it. The almost current case involving police brutality and excessive use of force involves the Albuquerque Police Department. Recently, certain police officers went against their oath and maliciously killed members of society. The circumstances are undiscovered and the Justice Department has conducted a through investigation stating that the police department the officers ki cked, punched and violently restrained nonthreatening people, and seldom were the officers reprimanded.Many of the victims suffered from mental illnesses, and some were disabled, elderly or drunk, the 16-month investigation concluded. The changes called for by the Justice Department 44 remedies in all included extensive revisions to the departments use-of-force policies. The term force would be much clearly defined, and officers would have to report to superiors when they used various tactics chokeholds, kicks, leg sweeps and tackles. Under the good words, officers would be trained to rely more on verbal warnings and less on stun guns, and new recruits would be required to undergo psychological, medicaland polygraph examinations to assess their fitness for the job(New York Times,2014). As much as the recommendations should be followed, more cases of police brutatlity and excessive force in Albuqueruqe happen however it seems officers refuse to listen to the recommendations and c hoose what is best for them.Some may feel threatened when they regain someone but there are other methods instead of physically harming someone or murdering the subject. One of the most recent trends that is currently affecting the criminal justices that will more likely affect it in the future is the increasing amount of crimes involving jejunenesss. In the past, youths were not subjected to violence and since the internet evolved and other environmental factors so much is at stake. One particular area where society is seeing violence are in areas that at one time that they thought was respectable such as schools and movies. The Aurora Thetre Shooting and various school shootings continue to happen and for innocent individuals fear is in their minds on a daily basis. The reasons the youth commits serious acts like these vary however most cases involved the lack of mental healthcare and as well as bullying.The perpertrators feel that the victims hurt them in some manner that led them to harm an entire school. In addition, technology is a severe problem for the criminal justice system today and will continue as long as the internet is available. Identity Theft is the newest trend in computer crimes and all it takes is a click of a dismission and the criminal soughting out the information can have access to someones life in a matter of seconds(Muraskin & Roberts,2009). Prevention is the only recommendation in both youth violence and cybercrimes that will eventually decrease the current trends occurring in the criminal justice system. The criminal justice system hold a significant value in todays changing society by ensuring each citizen of the United States is lawfully protected by their consititutional rights as well as ensuring that local, state, and federal governments following proper protocol, procedures, and polices on keeping society away from harm that he or she could possibly face.The only problem that society has with the criminal justice system is the lack of mistrust invididuals have based on past incidents and discrepanices that makes persons make the assumption that all professionals do not care of their well being or are not going above and beyond to protect them. Current trends and comtemproary issues within the criminal justice system willremain in society for many years to come. Capital punishment, prison overcrowding, and police brutality affect the justice system in a variety of ways but to society each problem can be fixed by following proper procedures. As for trends, technology and youth violence is uncertain but the best method is to find resources and methods to eliminate trends in the cirminla justice system in the future. As much as society places the criminal justice system as good or bad it is something needed to protect everyone from constitutional violations as well as from heinous acts of crime.ReferenceAmerican Legislative Exchange Council . (2014). Prison Overcrowding Oklahoma. Retrieved from http//www CNN. (2014). Oklahoma executions back on, as court rules to keep lethal-drug sources secret. Retrieved from http// Muraskin, R., & Roberts, A. R. (2009). Visions For Change law-breaking and Justice in the 21st Century (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ Prentice Hall. New York Times. (2014). Justice Dept. Accuses Albuquerque Police of Excessive Force. Retrieved from http// Statewide Harm Reduction Coalition (SHaRC). (n.d.). What Causes Overcrowding in Jails and Prisons?. Retrieved from http// The Guardian. (2014). Oklahoma execution of Clayton Lockett timeline of the botched procedure. Retrieved from http//

Wednesday, May 22, 2019

Foreign Literature Essay

Last night I was at the presentation of the Independent Foreign Fiction Prize, at the National Portrait Gallery, where a early Angolan writer, Jos Eduardo Agualusa, was announced the 2007 winner for his novel The Book of Chameleons, translated from the Portuguese by Daniel Hahn. Set in contemporary Angola, the book is particularly notable for being narrated by a lizard. The judges this year were the poet David Constantine, writer and editor Jennie Erdal, Arts Council Literature officer Kate Griffin, novelist Ali Smith and the literary editor of the Independent, Boyd Tonkin.Admirably the repute is sh atomic number 18d surrounded by the translator and author, thus honouring an art that often goes unsung. The book was evidently a popular choice and Agualusa received his award in person, accompanied by whoops and cheers. Tonkin extols the prize as a unique bridge between writers abroad and readers at home. As thrilled as I was that this talented newcomer pulsation such literary heavy weights as Ismail Kadare and Javier Maras, however, I was even more delighted that the award honours a small literary publisher, Arcadia, who recently storeyed their 10th anniversary.The dedicated team at Arcadia are worthy recipients of this prestigious award, not just for bringing this imaginative young writer to an English readership, precisely overall for their championing of cultural diversity and for widening our literary choice 50% of their 2007 lists are books in reading. Given the effects of globalisation elsewhere, it seems astonishing that we dont translate more foreign literature in this country. Apparently, translated fiction accounts for only 3% of fiction sales in the UK, compared with 30-40% in France or Spain. The British are voracious readers, so why are we so insular?Dont we welcome unusual voices and different perspectives? How can we exert pressure on publishers to produce more translated fiction? For those interested in foreign literature, an excellent reso urce is Words Without Borders, an online magazine dedicated to promoting international exchange through translation and publishing works/extracts on the web. And if youd like to see Jos Eduardo Agualusa and Daniel Hahn, theyll be reading from The Book of Chameleons this evening at Foyles bookshop, London, 6.30pm 8.30pm.

Tuesday, May 21, 2019

Proposal for Handicraft

PROPOSAL OF MODERN AND CLASSIC HANDICRAFT 1. 0 INTRODUCTION * This product is owned by MODERN AND CLASSIC HANDICRAFT SDN BHD. This company is fixed Bandar Hilir, Melaka. Handicraft is a product made by humans hands without using any machinery or equipment. Gener wholey calling means artwork or skills of hands are not usually dined with machines but rather with hand tools. The price that we offer is very affordable to our customer. 2. 0 PRODUCT rendering 3. 1 This companys product is barter basket newbornspaper. It is made from recycling of paper such as old newspaper. 3. Our company has many competitors of handcraft such as a cane handicrafts, wood handicrafts, bamboo handicrafts, and shell handicrafts. Their soma and collection very impressive and modern in the global design trend. Plus, they all have a great and cute design and have a lot of experience and ideas in the fundament of handicraft. 3. 3 Our product features is made from newspaper. The creation are beautiful and very high artistic. It does overly promote recycling, have a light weight and easy to carry anywhere, durable, strong, very suitable in note in any room in the house and of course comes with cheap price. . 4 Our special features of product newspapers additional accessories such as ribbons to brand a decoration into our product. It is to attract the people to buy our product because it is different from other products. 3. 5 Our product must be in the market because it is a very different product that other. An crucial that comes from this product is, it is made by hand. Moreover, it did not use any machine that harms an surroundings. Our product is also a ground combination in modern and classic handicraft.Another thing is, our main aim for this product to be on the market is, to avoid more pollution overtake in our environment. Overall, this product is comes from the newspaper and 100% handmade product. It is value for the customers and the quality of the product is guarante ed. In this product, the customer also can find another design instead the small one and the big one. Example, the basket and dustbin. 3. 6 Our product is suitable for the bride, house wife, traditional and handicraft collector, and also some restaurant owner.This locate of customers will likely to buy this product for specific purpose. For example the restaurant owner will buy our product for unique decoration of the table to place tissues. Same also goes to house wife. 3. 0 The objectives of our company are 4. 7 To introduce to the people the uniqueness of our product that is comes from the newspaper. * The main option to produce this handicraft is to reduce the pollution and show benefit of that comes from recycles work. It is also will show the uniqueness about product that made by hands and uses the newspaper as the main item.We did not use any machines, so it will reduce many cost and can save the budget to produce our product. 4. 8 To cope an interest from the shareholders of making a product that can build a good environment. * Our shareholders want to have a good environment in tack together to produce any product. We decide to bring our company name as a company that have a safe environment in workplace, also bring the interest of the shareholder. It can be proven by at that places no pollution like the factories of making any handicraft product.In scathe to get any pull in, we also remain the importance that we have care about our environment 4. 9 To market a various shape of handicraft product. * Our product is comes with various shape that will catch the interest of the consumer. Another important objective that we hold in this company is to bring a huge marketing of our product. Instead people want to using a product to store a things from a plastic product, we want to make a new marketing about to store a product that comes from recycle things, and to give an awareness to the consumer about reduction of pollution. * 4. SIGNIFICANCE OF OUR COMPANY 5. 10 To get the profit from a good product that we have made It is a valuable works that comes from a hand. Thus, it is important for the company to get the real profit from the product, so the worker in the company will feel the value that comes from the product. Instead, this is new innovation that the company wants to bring to the consumer. By only using a newspaper, theres many benefit that everyone can share. 5. 11 To ensure that customers are satisfied with the our design Our target are to give our customer believe and foregather with our design and collection.Although, we want them feel happy and should collect or buy our product again. It is because we will get satisfication our design with affordable price. 5. 12 To protect the environment Newspapers could be used to protect the environment and prevent pollution. Our product can also save money by recycling newspapers. Nowadays, theres so many production of the products. People just want to get the profit, but di dnt think the effects that it will brings to environment. By this product, it will show the important on how the way effective of protect the environment.

Monday, May 20, 2019

Billing and Payments Monitoring System

I. INTRODUCTION 1. 1 Background of the Study One of the most important things to think up when you have a business or a company is keeping records. Monitoring bills and payments are real important. People are assigned to different positions much(prenominal) as cashiers, treasurers, finance managers and others that involve handling money. Without such records, a company impart not be able to keep track of their transactions, which would lead to forbid results such as being broken or having more expenses than income. The process of recording bills and payments are do in different ways.Most companies would do it manu exclusivelyy, a cashier or any other qualified soulfulness would do the computations and write it down and keep it. Our client company, however, further has two people that have nettle to their records. In this situation, the cashier has no assistants so that the job is precise difficult as she manages everything by herself. The proponents show to propose and de velop a Billing and Payments Monitoring System for Minerva Trading the House of Motorcycles Inc. it would computerize the drop manual process of typography everything down in paper.It would keep the records, and it would allow the users to keep track of their nodes and their interchangeable rule books. It would show the total price and record factors that might affect changes in payment such as discounts and advanced payments. 1. 2 Overview of the Current System Our interview with Mr. Dustin Sacay the Officer in Charge of Minerva Trading, Novaliches branch and Ms. Rosie Pascual the cashier, went headspring as we talked about how we could help their company with the system that we intend to develop.They gave us all the data that we needed, and they were very cooperative while we were conducting the interview. Our client, Minerva Trading the House of Motorcycles Inc. the company that accepted our proposal had to do everything manually, they write all the transactions and record s on papers. While that is the most common way of keeping records, there are reliable problems that would arise from time to time. These problems might include ink erasures, writing the wrong data, misplacement of records, and outrideocking of paper constantly.Minervas employment has a simple step by step process to be followed whenever a transaction was made. First, the customer would fill up an application form he/she would select his/her payment type, installment or cash. If the customer chooses cash, he/she gets the bill and the transaction is finished. If its installment, the OIC would do a CI (Checking Investigation) to do some background checking on the customer, if the customer passes or fails the CI, he/she would be notified.If the customer is approved by the OIC, his application form and ordain detail would be submitted to the cashier. The cashier would then fill up a contract and a ledger that would give the payment details for the customer. The customer subsequently gives a down payment and afterwards pays the rest of the amount whenever he can until he/she completes the whole amount. 1. 3 Significance of the Study The following will be the beneficiaries of this study * Company The system would reduce the time that they spend on manually writing down everything in paper. Cashier The cashier would be the primary beneficiary. She does nearly 90% of the paperwork in Minerva Trading. at once they receive and use the system, their work would be a lot faster, easier and more organized. * OIC (Officer In Charge) Other than the cashier, the OIC is the only other person that has the authority and access to all the records. He would find the system useful as it will simplify and lessen their work. * Customers The customers might also find the system helpful, especially during transactions.Filling up forms and other paperwork might shorten the time that they need to wait or to get their receipts and other things that unremarkably involved the manual wr iting processes. * Proponents The proponents would also benefit from this, as it would expand our knowledge when it comes to system development, it helps us practice our interpersonal skills as we communicate with different people, it helps us practice writing in face with the documentation, and last but not the least, the subject itself is going to prepare us for other thesis subjects in the coming semesters. Future Researchers This might also be of some of the use to future researchers as it is searching from the typical proposals that involve systems that seem common to both teachers and other proponents alike. We believe that learning about a system that is different from the usual proposed titles would expand their knowledge and maybe even help them think of their separate concepts in creating their own systems.

Sunday, May 19, 2019

Colors Tv Report

colorize TV Channel Study of merchandise Strategy Presented By Group 2 Gourav Dokania 10P078 Rahul Kaushal 10P100 Saaransh Malani 10P106 Shalabh Arora 10P109 Shivi Goel -10P112 Tisa Annie Paul 10P117 Vivek Mogili 10P120 Contents Introduction3 Television surroundings a brief subscribe to4 Marketing milieu4 The propagation The open and its effects7 The Silver Lining10 MARKET ENTRY STRATEGIES OF COLORS (PRE-LAUNCH)10 PROMOTION STRATEGIES for the impel12 Analysing colourize based on grocery storeing framework15 SWOT Analysis17 Marketing Mix18Analyzing consumer behavior and developing targeting strategies19 publicizing POLICIES21 AD order and Sources of Revenues22 DISTRIBUTION POLICIES OF COLORS23 set Policy24 global FORAY24 Areas of concern25 Introduction As sort of our foster project in Marketing plan course, we would uni tenor to make a comprehensive study regarding the colorise TV driveway. As part of the study, we would analogous to c everyplace the foll owing points 1. The merchandiseing environment revolving around TV take in general This is divided into three parts during the course of the report Pre-liberalization environment The immediate post-liberalization phase The environment preceding the ar persona of colourize subscriber line The present tradeing environment 2. The consumer target segment and their behaviour during the above phases 3. The found strategies followed by Colors TV 4. The analysis of Colors TV billet based on versatile commercializeing frameworks Below ar the frameworks, we would like to base our study on SWOT analysis 5 Cs framework 5. The product and marketing strategies followed by the lineage 6. The segmentation, targeting and positioning strategies as applicable.The study and analysis is backed by an online survey 7. The pricing policies pickings into account the revenue enhancement model and AD order 8. The distribution policies followed by the channel 9. Recomm decisionations and c onclusions Television environment a brief study We go away start our study by briefly explaining what we mean by a marketing environment and bequeath then proceed to study the marketing environment of TV channel as discussed in the phases above. We exit particular(prenominal)ally focus our study in Hindu world(a) Entertainment Channels. Marketing environmentA marketing environment consists of actors and forces for tenderdenside the organization that affect managements ability to build and contain relationships with target customers. Two kinds of classification can buoy be made Microenvironment actors close to the companies that affect its ability to help its customers. Macroenvironment larger societal forces that affect the microenvironment. Two points atomic number 18 worth noning at this stage Studying the environment allows marketers to take advantage of opportunities as well as to combat threats. Marketing intelligence and research atomic number 18 employ to co llect information about the environment.Doordarshan era Indian small screen programming started majorly in the early 1980s. At that time t here was only cardinal national channel Doordarshan, which was government owned. By the late 1980s to a greater extent(prenominal) and much pot started to own goggle box sets. Though there was a hit channel, television programming had reached saturation. Hence the government opened up another channel which had part national programming and part regional. This channel was kat oncen as DD 2 subsequently DD Metro. Both channel were broadcast terrestrially. Liberalization era In 1992, the government liberated the industry by opening them up to cable television.Five bracing bring belonging to the Hong Kong-based STAR TV gave Indians a clean-living breathing place of life. MTV, STAR Plus, hint Movies, BBC, Prime Sports and STAR Chinese Channel were the 5 carry. Zee TV was the prototypic private owned Indian channel to broadcast over cabl e. A few course of instructions later CNN, Disco actually Channel and case Geographic Channel made their spoil into India. Star expanded its sweetness introducing STAR World, STAR Sports, ESPN, Channel V and STAR Gold. Regional convey flourished along with a pile of Hindoo channels and a few English channels.By 2001 HBO and History Channel were the other global channels to enter India. By 19992003, other international channels such as Nickelodeon, Cartoon cyber billet, VH1, Disney and Toon Disney came into foray. In 2003 news channels started to boom. The more or less recent channels that nourish come up are UTV Movies, UTV Bindass, Zoom, Colours, 9X and 9XM. The harvest-home post-liberalization Starting with 41 sets in 1962 and nonpareil channel, by 1991 TV in India covered more than 70 meg homes giving a viewing population of more than 400 million individuals through more than 100 channels.As per the tam Annual Universe Update 2010, India now has over 134 million ho callholds (out of 223 million) with television sets, of which over 103 million mystify access to Cable TV or Satellite TV, including 20 million households are DTH subscribers. In Urban India, 85% of all households have a TV and over 70% of all households have access to Satellite, Cable or DTH services. TV owning households have been growing at mingled with 8-10%, piece of music growth in Satellite/Cable homes exceeded 15% and DTH subscribers grew 28% over 2009.It is withal estimated that India now has over 500 TV channels covering all the main languages spoken in the nation. A cursory glance at the TV beseechings show the kind of diversity that Indian society has channels for not just different languages, but also serving different niches within the broad comprehensive of entertainment, spirituality, news, music & movies. The volatile tastes of Indias TV audience leads to ratings volatility and viewership fragmentation which can put bosom on ad rates, as ad volumes and ra tes are unlikely to move up simultaneously. acclivity ad volumes will deformity ad rates thus, incumbents could see slower top-line growth. In addition we have analyzed the following factors 1) Lack of entry barriers bringing new competition The pace at which channels are being deputeed is alarming and indicates the lack of significant entry barriers in television, compared to the stickiness of other media, such as print, where persuading readers to switch to another paper is not as easy as flipping channels.General entertainment channels command a 40% share of the total advertisement pie and have an estimated ad market sur brass instrument of US$1bn and have seen an maturation in serious competition over the past few quarters, determined by new launches from entities funded by private equity investors and international media conglomerates 2) Building scale is critical, but could dent earnings momentum The entire broadcast sector wants to expand, as only companies with well-d iversified exposure, a broad range of channels and control of strategic assets are well-positioned to fend despatch competition.This also ensures that advertisers are offered a spectrum of media survivals, stellar(a) to growth through higher addressable ad volumes and reduced sensitivity to ad rates. This comes at a cost however, as earnings performance deteriorates during the transition phase, when expansion TV18 is diversifying into unrelated assets, which could lead to significant losings in the initial phase due to lack of immediate synergies and the learning curve, required for reaching breakeven point. 3) diversion in ad revenues as per the market conditions Research suggests a slowdown in economy nowadays affects the ad revenues being generated.While a worsening competitive environment, lower liquidity in fiscal markets and high interest rates can lead to a tough operating environment for broadcasters, we intend that strong market growth and pay revenue streams will ens ure their survival of these channels in the near term. 4) Expect acceleration in organize pay revenues Expert estimate Indias unionized subscriber base to expand at a 36% CAGR over the next three years, while the unorganized subscription pie is expected to witness a sharp contraction (-7% CAGR) due to ongoing efforts to switch customers onto the organized network.Subscription revenues directly add to profitability and should help broadcasters balance out margins pressure from competition and rising costs. The Genesis The Launch and its effects Alliance formation between meshing 18 Group and Viacom Inc. In may of 2007, the Network 18 Group and Viacom Inc, a New York-based global entertainment sum club announce the creation of a 5050 joint venture operation in India called Viacom 18. The strategic union includes television, film and digital media content across numerous brands to build Indias leading multi-platform entertainment company.Launch of Colors TV Channel In-spite of the tough competition and neither partner having any experience in operating a Hindi-language entertainment channel, Studio18, a new-age motion picture brand that produces, acquires and distributes Hindi films launched the Hindi General Entertainment Channel COLORS on 2 first June, 2008. Face Off Against a Decade longsighted Legacy of Star TV Colors TV Channel was the eleventh entrant into a market space that was already over-crowded and extremely competitive.Not only that, the battle for leadership in this market, which happened to be the Hindi general entertainment genre, the biggest segment in terms of both the viewership share as well as advertising revenue potential, on television had already been fought and won. The Hindi GEC space was dominated by Star plus, Zee and Sony. According to television audience measurement agency TAM Media research, four weeks prior to the launch of the channel, that is in June 2008, Star Plus was the clear leader with 351 GRPs, followed by Zee TV with 226 GRPs and Sony at spell three with 102 GRPs.Intense Rivalry for the Second Spot Those at the middle and the bottom rung were not in a comfortable zone either. The other close rivals, Zee TV and Sony Entertainment Television, had been contend tooth and nail to claim the number two one-armed bandit but none could hold it for too long. former(a) New Entrants had Failed Most importantly, the industry response to some new entrants such as 9X and NDTV Imagine had not been too encouraging. And surprisingly, all other channels preceding and succeeding Colors had performed dismally.Colors immediate predecessor NDTV Imagine was far from breaking into the top three exclusive club and other new entrants such as 9X and Real, launched by Alva Brothers, of Miditech fame (the television content production company behind popular shows such as Roadies) and Turner International were struggling to keep themselves going. Colors TV Channel exceeded the general expectation setting new record s Taking the above factors into account, Colors entry in this scenario did not seem like a sound business decision to most in the industry.Most industry watchers wrote it off even in the lead they switched it on. The viewership ratings post-launch picpic The viewership ratings later one year of launch pic pic ? Colors showed the uttermost increase in viewership in the seven months preceding its launch. Its launch had expanded the GEC pie by 37%, maximum of which was taken by Colors as seen by the table below pic ? Within 10 weeks Colors managed to gain more than 100 advertisers. The sense transcended into unprecedented loyalty pic The Silver Lining In the past, it has taken a channel six to night club years to break even.Colors, according to the industry watchers, will be breaking even by end of 2010. MARKET ENTRY STRATEGIES OF COLORS (PRE-LAUNCH) 1) Colors Jasbaat Ke Rang COLORS is a positioned as a blend of emotions and variety, COLORS promises to offer an entire spectrum o f emotions to the viewers that is well captured in its tagline Jasbaat Ke Rang. The vibrant colours and hitchhike frame used in the logotype brought a new fresh post along with. 2) Use of existing network of Network 18 to market Colors Viacom 18 left no stone unturned to market Colors either.For a start, it made a smart use of Network 18s news channels to cross promote the entertainment channel. 3) Not popularizing fiction shows in the lead the launch To avoid confusing the viewer, it also cleverly pushed only its high-wattage show, and Akshay Kumar. In contrast, 9x advertised all its fiction shows during its launch. Akshay Kumar actually worked almost like a brand ambassador for Colors without the channel really having to rope him in that role. The stars face helped the channel cut through the clutter. ) Deploying the falling popularity of K serials They also benefited from Star Plus own lethargy towards taking quick action against the falling popularity of its K-serials (the family slashs produced by content production house Balaji Telefilms. Since the titles of most shows produced by the company began with letter, K, they were referred to as K-serials) 5) Offering of single outd TV programs The iron was hot to be stroked. While the popularity of saas-bahu serials had been falling, Colors came out with a fresh and diversified mix.At one hand was Indian version of worship gene hosted by Akshay Kumar and at the other hand was Balika Vadhu based on the female oppression in India. Then, mythical serials, coming after a huge break greatly attracted the viewers. Mothers who were hooked on the Saas-bahu serials started switching channels during the break to check on what stunts the ravishing girls were doing on a particular episode of Khatron Ke Khiladi. The tendency to rook into Colors Channel gradually developed into a habit for these folks and soon most of them were hooked on to Colors for their daily dose of entertainment in the evening. ) Roping i n celebrities like Akshay Kumar To be sure, every aspect of Colors launch, be it the distribution, marketing or content had been well thought through. The channel started with only four hours of original programming but it got a competent viewership driver in the form of Khatron Ke Khiladi (KKK), which was hosted by Bollywood hottie Akshay Kumar. Akshay Kumar was at his prime at that time. Bringing him to the small screen was sure to bring in eyeballs. It was, therefore, a good programming strategy. 7) Different days and timing of airing the programsThe truth show Fear Factor was actually aired in Weekdays. Colors content head Ashwini Yarde, formerly at Zee, says the channel took a major risk in introducing an action-packed, male-skewed reality show with Akshay Kumar (and 13 daring pretty immature things) on weekdays between 10 and 11 pm. It experimented with reality on week days against the popular tendency of airing such shows during weekends. similarly, it went against the ti de as the 10-11 pm slot was historically oriented towards women-centric serials such as Kahani Ghar Ghar Ki and Kyunki Saas Bhi Kabhi Bahu Thi.The shows in 7-10 pm band were targeted at kids and non-metros and then at 10pm, they had Fear Factor, which was targeted mainly at metro audience PROMOTION STRATEGIES for the launch The launch of Colors has seen the most innovative and all-medium encompassing strategy, nevertheless to be seen in this competitive and cluttered space. 1) Tie up with Mumbai Dabbawalas The team also tied up with the famous 250,000 dabbawallahs of Mumbai to plaster the channels and its various shows logos and snapshots on the tiffin boxes that are distributed among people across the city. 2) Tie up with Barista LavazzaThey launched Khatron Ke Khiladi special edition coffee in association retail fibril Barista Lavazza. It was for the offset printing time, a television channel had through such exciting campaigns for itself. 3) Public Relations It was the monoli thic public relations exercise that put Colors on the GEC map. The channel focused sharply on editorial support and ensured that it generated enough reports on the channel. For Bigg brag, we picked newsmakers and the single-line brief was how these people should be able to move the reportage of Colors from the entertainment pages to the front pages of newspapers ) Real time viewer involvement In a bid to attract and retain viewer interest, GECs are increasely letting viewers get more and more involved with their various offerings from selecting the name of a show to deciding on the lead protagonist after a outpouring in time. Colors show Balika Vadhu is set to take a time leap and the channel is letting the viewers decide on which of the three actresses shown should become the grown up Anandi, one of televisions most popular characters. Viewers can vote for the new Anandi via SMS. 5) Healthy replacements of programsWhen KKK went off air after 16 weeks, it was replaced by Bigg Bos s, the highly-controversial (by design, say media experts) show hosted by Shilpa Shetty, which is averaging a healthy TVR of 2. 8. 6) support Hoardings Live hoarding in 20 cities were run for three days to promote another big-ticket(prenominal) show Bigg Boss. 7) Planning to enter merchandising At present, advertising and subscription are the two main sources of revenue for the channel, but the team is contemplating an entry into the merchandising space within the next one year. ) To begin with, it has used all media such as TV, radio, print, websites, mobiles, movie theaters and outdoor for promoting the channel. It has placed1300 hoardings and launched road showsacross the country. 9) For a more concentrated campaign,3000 taxis in Mumbai and 2000 auto rickshawsin small towns along withlocal trains and school buseshave been piebald with Colors brand. 10) Along with this 65000 ad spots are booked on TV while 15 million SMS have been send across all telecom operators. 11) AtBig Baz aarstores, helpers and counter-guys are wearingColors T-shirtsand giving out information about the channel. 2) InMcDonalds,the Colors brand is present on the menu while Fear Factor Khataron Ke Khiladi merchandise is available atPantaloonsand McDonalds. 13) For program specific advertising,Colors has tied up with ISKCONfor promoting its mythological show Jai Sri Krishna at all ISKCON temples. Also, 1000 temples across Hindi speaking states are being used to promote the show by putting streamers on banner stalls and giving Krishna merchandise, literature and calendars. 14) For the show Mohe Rang De, Colors has chosen Punjab and Delhi toorganise street playsas these plays were the maximum witness to freedom struggle.We can summarise the communication strategies based on the the 6 Ms Model of communication Market General Public MissionTo generate Curiosity about the channel & shows MessageWatch Colors Media TV, Newspapers, Hoardings, Dabbawalas, SMS MoneySpent more than Rs. 50 crore on initial promotion Measurement Initial viewership The marketing and communication strategies seemed to be quite aggressive and innovative but ultimately it was the programming quality and show placement which set up its positioning in the Indian television space. Analysing Colors based on marketing frameworkIn this section, we would be looking after the strategizing, segmentation, targeting, positioning of Colors based on established marketing frameworks 5 Cs of marketing Collaborators Colors channel is a joint venture operation in India between Viacom Inc. and Network18 Group. Colors, earlier a free to air (FTA) channel, has recently gone pay. Paid 5-10 % more than the others on cable distribution so that Colors sat between the prime channels MSM Discovery cliquish Limited (MSMD) is the designated agent to distribute Colors in India as part of the coveted The integrityAlliance (TOA) bouquet. IPL ties up with ColorsCompetitors Major competitors Star Plus, Zee and Sony Power in the hands of the cable operator Pay coach-and-four fee to view a channel Company Product lines fiction, mythology, reality Image in the market entered as a challenger, now leader Skills innovative content, disruptive scheduling Goal to be a profitable market leader Customers Created thought provoking subject-based shows like Balika Vadhu, Uttaran and Na Ana Is Des Laado Reality shows with a difference like Khatron Ke Khiladi, Big Boss and now the latest BINGO Gives the viewers an expanded choice Scientific scheduling for eg Balika Vadhu (multiple entry points) Context Political issues notice was sent to Colors Channel for allegedly portraying the character of a district magistrate in negative light in the serial. Social Issues horrible scenes of a girl child being immersed in a big bowl of milk , created a social outburst Extra working hours of the children SWOT Analysis Strengths Shows from all walks of life A fresh outlook on everything New themes and Ideas Wea kness Strong competitors A new channel with teething problems arduous to capture an already captivated part of audience Opportunity A lot of untapped market A new generation with different taste in TV Brand Loyalty in Indians Threats Failure Immediate acceptance Difficulty in looking for new grounds Copy Cats Marketing Mix Product Innovative Daily soaps touching altogether different emotional buds of women viewers bell Prices offered to advertisers were very attractive as the channel got more than 100 advertisers within 2 months of its launch shopping center Viacom18 is said to have given away Rs 100 crore as carriage fee for a year to get the trump out band for its channel Promotion Innovative promotion Analyzing consumer behavior and developing targeting strategies The TV consumer of today, unlike that of the Doordarshan era is exposed to various programs and content formats. With profusion of interactive social media, all kinds of TV shows, movies, user generated content, nation and culture specific content is available at a click. Again with increasing march towards a global economy, retail boom in the form of super markets, increasing foray of global brands and culture, the young consumer of today is vastly different from the old.They are more demanding, time-pressed, seek instant felicity and look for fresh content. IPTV is the future of TV industry. At the same time, any GEC cannot ignore the women-centric content and in a nation of diversity and high religious sensibilities, mythological content too is needed. We try to interpret these and various other factors to understand the consumer behavior central to Colors in particular and Hindi GEC in general. TARGETING Identification of markets with unfulfilled needs and trying to tap them.Some examples include socially sensitive issues, mythology & saas-bahu serials with a difference Discovering segments on the basis of consumer characteristics and ascertaining their potential. Colors ha s very aptly identified the difference between Bharat and India and knowing contents to appeal to both. Differentiating product offering from competitors Colors has successfully offered and marketed differentiated content with intelligent scheduling. Also they have been very quick in striking deals with latest Bollywood movies. We will look at the distinction strategy in detail in the following sections. Creating a distinctive positioning in the minds of consumers A mixture of both program content and promotional strategies has really situated the brand as one appealing to both youth and the family and created an image of one with the freshest perspective. SEGMENTATION The various parameters on which the market can be segmented is Age 15-24 years They are the key viewers especially in single family households. Reality and youth shows have really appealed to this section. Lady of the house She is attracted to fiction and afternoon slots are designed keeping their tastes in mind Urban/Rural Target Bharat The target is skewed towards smaller towns with 7-9 pm slots. India Metro-centric focus in slots of 9-10 pm. Product Offerings Having the segment and their behavior in mind, let us look at the major product offerings clubbed under three heads Fiction eg. Balika Vadhu,Uttaran, Na aana iss des laado Reality shows eg. Khatron ke Khiladi, Big boss, National Bingo night Mythology Jai shri Krishna, Mahavir hanuman Differentiation The following table list some factors which has helped Colors differentiate itself from the other GECs Other channels Colors Started with regular fiction shows Yes No Started with 2 reality shows with a bang No Yes Promoted only 1 show on launch No Yes (KKK) Brand ambassador Mostly No Yes Started socially sensitive shows No Yes Reality shows on weekends Yes No pose Positioning is how the brand is situated in the perceptual space of the consumer. So it is their detection which is of par arrive importance here and not the intended position. So to understand the positioning it was essential that we go to the consumers. We floated an online survey to understand the perception consumers have of various Hindi GECs across various parameters. But still to get the other perspective we list below some intended positioning factors driving Colors ? Colors. An arbitrary name at first glance, this is a self-descriptive.The use of the plural form itself distinguishes itself as a general entertainment channel one which caters to multiple audiences. This is further emphasized by its tagline Jasbaat Ke Rang (The colours of emotion) which promises the shows that will target the entire spectrum of viewers. ? The logo also provides some intended positioning insights. In every society yellow is associated with the sun and hence optimism, warmth and happiness. Pink is youthful, fun and exciting. Purple, a mix of the passionate red and tranquil blue, evokes mystery, spirituality and sentimentality. The leaf mot if, is a connection to earth and a acknowledgment of roots and natural origin. The Viacom 18 rejoinder at the bottom of the logo indicates an effort by the promoters to promote the parent brand (something they have not done with their other offerings MTV, Nick and VH1). Usually the name of such an established parent adds to the credibility of the offering and in this case also reflects the aggression and pace with which the brand plans to march ahead. ? The tagline of the channel is Jasbaat Ke Rang signifying the universal appeal of its programmes. ADVERTISING POLICIES After the product, its promotion and even the distribution has been put in place, comes the question of earning the bread and butter. In India, more than 80% of most television channels revenues come from advertising. Colors TV Channel was launched at a time when global economic downturn had already set in and it had begun to impact the Indian market as well. Advertisers had begun holding their purse strings tight. Y et, within weeks of its launch, the channel had most premium advertisers on board. One thing that the team at Colors responsible for raising advertising was clear about was It would not sell its ad slots cheap even if it meant, not getting any advertising. To sell advertising lineage in the kind of market that Colors stepped in wasnt easy. There were rivals who were ready to cut their rates to wean away advertisers and the economic scenario also wasnt too encouraging. They had done their home work before they stepped into the market.They did a lot of number crunching, decided on some rates and held on to them. Demanding premium rates may have been rendered easier by the good work done by the channels content creation team. They actually went in with lower inventories and did not sign the deals till they got their price. AD rates and Sources of Revenues In general, the AD rates for various TV News channels range from Rs 2,500 to Rs. 8,000 and for the popular shows on GECs like Sta r, Zee, Sony the range will be from 1. 5 to 3 lakhs. These rates are for a ten second slot and they vary too as per the volume, duration, past records of the media buying agencies and advertisers.But as we have seen in the discussion above, Colors so far has successfully commanded premium rates. Brands such as Garnier Men Deodorant, Vodafone, Micromax Mobiles, Tic Tac (from Italys Ferrero Group) and Sony Bravia are riding on Khatron Ke Khiladi (KKK3)a stunt reality show. Title sponsorship for high-decibel celebrity showssuch as Bigg Boss to be anchored by Salman Khan on Colors fetch 15-20 crore. Associate sponsorships for such shows are unploughed at 7-8 crore Celebrity backed reality shows command higher rates than soaps On average, a 10-second ad spot on a top-rated reality show sold for between Rs 2 lakh and Rs 3 lakh compared with the Rs 1-1. lakh a spot of similar length thats sold for a TV soap Another revenue earning mode in reality TV this year was in-branding of prod ucts in the shows. Networks ordinarily saddle a 200-300 per cent premium above regular advertising rates for product placements in reality shows. On offer are passive product shots (with no interaction with the brand) an active placement (with limited interaction or activity around the brand) or a hyperactive placement (an aggressive use of product) in the show. Charges 5 to 10 lakhs DISTRIBUTION POLICIES OF COLORS As per a Delhi-based cable operator, Distribution, in fact, is the most crucial element to the success of a television channel in todays time, says. A channel may have the best of content and it may burn a huge amount of money in promoting it, but if the channel doesnt reach viewers, which means if the distribution is not in place, all these efforts will yield a naught. Colors TV Channel has handled the distribution conundrum very well. Using its sharp distribution plan, Colors reached 36. 4 million viewers in its launch week. By end of 2009, Colors claims to have the maximum reach with 72. 5 million viewers in the GEC space . Promotional policies followed by Colors on its launch It was an encrypted pay channel with a free-to-air window for first six months This was done to allow its viewers to sample it and be noticed Colors also distributed its channel by itself as gives them more flexibility in their operations. They planned to be seen in over 50 per cent of the cable homes from day one They were also to be present across the existing and the new direct-to-home (DTH) platforms. It was also encrypted on BizAsia. co. uk and hence increased its penetration throughout the world It is also available on Sky Digital channel 829. The channel in the UK and USA is being endorsed by Bollywood legend, Amitabh Bachchan. Viacoms distribution strategy can be held to be 99 per cent responsible for the success of Colors. Colors have given away Rs 100 crore as carriage fee for a year to get the best band for its channel.Its budget was clearly much highe r than the Rs 40-60 crore that NDTV Imagine and 9x reportedly invested in distribution. On 1st April, 2009, Colors became a paid channel, and its viewership fell. It lost market share from 298 GRPs to 292 but overall with a preserve rise in its share, it managed to beat Star Plus in the week ended 11 April, 2009 Pricing Policy 1. Colors charge around Rs21 each, excluding 10% service tax and it paid a sizeable carriage fee of more than Rs90 crore to distributors when it was launched INTERNATIONAL FORAY On 21 January 2010, Colors became available on Dish Network in the US, where it is called Aapka Colors (Respectfully your Colors) because of a clash with Colours TV.Amitabh Bachchan served as brand ambassador for the UK and USA launches. Colors launched in the United Kingdom and Ireland on Sky on 25 January 2010. On 9 December 2009, INX Media confirmed that Colors had bought 9XMs Sky EPG slot on channel 829 and on 5 January 2010, Colors secured a deal to join the VIEWASIA subscrip tion package. EPG tests began on 4 January 2010 using the 9XM stream, followed by Colors own tv set and audio on 8 January. Initially the channel was available free-to-air and then subsequently was added to the VIEWASIA package on 19 April 2010. FIRST IN INTERNET TELEVISION Colors is the first ever global launch of an entertainment channel on IPTV.With colors, Viacom 18 has made its foray into the IPTV sector which will certainly be one of the biggest distribution mediums, with worldwide reach, in the near future. The launch has been made possible by a partnership between Viacom 18 and The New Media Group which owns World-On- demand IPTV platform. According to Sanjev Hiremath, Sr. Vice President, Network Development, and Viacom 18 Media Pvt. Ltd. Areas of concern Despite the positive hype and sustained interest in its offerings, the reach of Colors in India is almost as wide as that of its competitors. Falling viewership shares 443 GRPs Thats a number you usually associate with a channel that airs a cricketing extravaganza like the Indian Premier conference or the cricket world cup.However, this staggering number belongs to Star Plus that has extended its supremacy over other channels. Colors stands a distant second with 271 GRPS, followed by Zee TV (231) and Sony (125), according to the TAM data week 25 (June 13-19). picBuzz up Buzz up The 443 GRPs is the highest by a Hindi GEC in the last 159 weeks. The previous record was held by the same channel too. The path ahead 1. Maintain/increase market share 2. Continue with innovative content 3. Collaborate with diverse content providers from other countries to design and introduce new format shows and serials. 4. Exclusive screening of tele- films, short films at a particular slot to cater to a niche audience